In this article, You will read Tiger Reserves in India and Project Tiger for UPSC IAS Examination.
Tiger Reserves in India
- Tiger became the national animal of India in 1973 as the lion was a national animal before.
- Jim Corbett National Park was created in 1936 for tiger conservation
- Classified as Endangered as per IUCN Red Databook
- Schedule 1 animal as per Wildlife Protection Act, 1972
- Tiger can be killed under two conditions-
- Diseased or disabled beyond recovery
- The threat to human life
- In no case, the tiger can be declared vermin.
There are 51 tiger reserves in India that are governed by Project Tiger which is administrated by the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA).
India is home to 80 percent of tigers in the world. In 2006, there were 1,411 tigers which increased to 1,706 in 2010, 2,226 in 2014 and 2967 in 2018.
The Indian increase played a big role in driving up global populations as well; the number of wild tigers globally rose from 3,159 in 2010 to 3,890 in 2016 according to World Wildlife Fund and Global Tiger Forum.
- Largest Tiger Reserve in India– Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve (Andhra Pradesh, Telangana)
- Smallest Tiger Reserve in India– Bor Tiger Reserve (Maharashtra)
- A tiger reserve is demarcated on the basis of ‘core-buffer strategy’ which includes:
(i) Core zone
(ii) Buffer zone
The world celebrated Global Tiger Day on July 29.
Global Tiger Forum
Global Tiger Forum is an Inter-Governmental international body working exclusively for the conservation of Tigers.
In 1993, an International Symposium on Tiger Conservation in New Delhi recommended the formation of an Inter-Governmental International Body that would embark on a Global Campaign for the Protection of Tigers.
- Established in 1994, the Global Tiger Forum (GTF) has its headquarters in New Delhi.
- The General Assembly of GTF meets after every three years.
- It utilizes cooperative policies, common approaches, technical expertise, scientific modules, and other appropriate programs.
- As per the Global Tiger Forum, it was set up to highlight the rationale for tiger preservation and provide leadership and a common approach throughout the world in order to safeguard the survival of the tiger, its prey, and its habitat.
- The Global Tiger Forum was set up to promote a worldwide campaign to save the tiger, its prey, and its habitat.
- The Global Tiger Forum has plans to promote a legal framework in the countries involved for biodiversity conservation and to increase the protected area network of habitats of the tiger and facilitate their inter passages in the range countries.
- It is the only Inter-Governmental body to save the tiger worldwide.
- 14 tiger range countries are its members.
- At the St. Petersburg Tiger Summit in 2010, leaders of 13 tiger range countries resolved to double its number in the wild, with a popular slogan ‘T x 2’.
- The Global Tiger Initiative (GTI) program of the World Bank brought global partners together to strengthen the tiger agenda.
- Over the years, the initiative has institutionalized as a separate entity in the form of the Global Tiger Initiative Council (GTIC) with the Global Tiger Forum as one of its arms.
- GTF has forged viable partnerships with several like-minded organizations in India and abroad – IUCN, WWF, WCT, WII, IIFM, IFAW, WTI, WCS, USAID, World Bank, Clemson University.
- To double the number of tigers by 2022
- Base year is 2006
- India has already achieved it
- An initiative of Global Tiger Forum
There were 40000 tigers in 1900 but only 1800 left in 1972.
- Project Tiger was launched in 1973 with 9 tiger reserves for conserving our national animal, the tiger. Currently, the Project Tiger coverage has increased to 51, spread out in 18 tiger range states.
- The tiger reserves are constituted on a core/buffer strategy. The core areas have the legal status of a national park or a sanctuary, whereas the buffer or peripheral areas are a mix of forest and non-forest land, managed as a multiple-use area.
- It is an ongoing Centrally Sponsored Scheme of the Ministry of Environment, Forests, and Climate Change providing central assistance to the tiger States for tiger conservation in designated tiger reserves.
- The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) is a statutory body of the Ministry, with an overarching supervisory/coordination role, performing functions as provided in the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
- The NTCA was launched in 2005, following the recommendations of the Tiger Task Force. It was given statutory status by the 2006 amendment of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
Core Zone (critical tiger habitats)
- The core area is kept free of biotic disturbances and forestry operations, where the collection of minor forest produce, grazing, human disturbances are not allowed within.
- These areas are required to be kept for the purposes of tiger conservation, without affecting the rights of the Scheduled Tribes or such other forest dwellers.
- These areas are notified by the State Government in consultation with an Expert Committee (constituted for that purpose).
- Buffer area is the area peripheral to the critical tiger habitat or core area providing supplementary habitat for dispersing tigers, besides offering scope for co-existence of human activity.
- The limits of the buffer/ peripheral areas are determined on the basis of scientific and objective criteria in consultation with the Gram Sabha and an Expert Committee constituted for the purpose.
Ex-situ and In-situ conservation methods
- Ex-situ conservation is the conservation and maintenance of samples of living organisms outside their natural habitat. Maintenance of Gene Banks, Seed Banks, etc. comes under this method of conservation.
- In situ conservation is the conservation of species in their natural habitats. Maintenance of natural habitats in the form of wildlife sanctuaries, national parks, etc. comes under this method of conservation.
Estimation of Tiger Populations
- The process of estimating the number of tigers in a given area is called ‘Tiger census’.
- It is conducted at regular intervals to know the current tiger populations and population trends.
- Besides estimating the number of tigers the method also helps to gather information on the density of the tiger populations and associated prey.
- The most commonly used technique in the past was the ‘Pugmark Census Technique’.
- In this method, the imprints of the pugmark of the tiger were recorded and used as a basis for the identification of individuals.
- Now it is largely used as one of the indices of tiger occurrence and relative abundance.
- Recent methods used to estimate the numbers of tigers are camera trapping and DNA fingerprinting.
- In camera trapping, the photograph of the tiger is taken and individuals are differentiated on the basis of the stripes on the body.
- In the latest technique of DNA fingerprinting, tigers can be identified from their scats.
- M-STrIPES (Monitoring System for Tigers – Intensive Protection and Ecological Status) is an app-based monitoring system, launched across Indian tiger reserves by the NTCA in 2010. The system would enable field managers to assist the intensity and spatial coverage of patrols in a geographic information system (GIS) domain.
Success of Project Tiger & Tiger Census in India
- Every 4 years the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) conducts a tiger census across India.
- The first was conducted in 2006, followed by 2010 and in 2014.
- The Census (2014) had reported 2,226 tigers in the country, up from 1,706 in 2010.
- According to results of the Tiger census (All India Tiger Estimation 2018-19), the total count of tigers has risen to 2,967 from 2,226 in 2014.
- The number of tiger reserves has been increased from 9 to 51
- It is an umbrella specie and so it leads to habitat conservation
- Eco-tourism has benefitted native communities.
- M.P. has maximum tigers- 526
- Karnataka- 524
- Kaziranga has the highest density of tigers.
Tiger Task Force
- The implementation of Project Tiger over the years has highlighted the need for a statutory authority with the legal backing to ensure tiger conservation.
- On the basis of the recommendations of the National Board for Wild Life, a Task Force was set up to look into the problems of tiger conservation in the country.
- The recommendations of the Task Force include strengthening Project Tiger by giving it statutory and administrative powers.
Steps Taken by the Government for Tiger Conservation
- Amendment of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 to Wild Life (Protection) Act, 2006 for providing enabling provisions towards constituting the National Tiger Conservation Authority and the Tiger and Other Endangered Species Crime Control Bureau.
- Enhancement of punishment in cases of an offense relating to a tiger reserve or its core area.
- Strengthening of ant poaching activities, including special strategy for monsoon patrolling.
- State level Steering Committees under the Chairmanship of Chief Ministers and establishment of Tiger Conservation Foundation.
- Creation of Special Tiger Protection Force (STPF) [Budget 2008]
- Financial and technical help is provided to the States under various Centrally Sponsored Schemes, viz. Project Tiger and Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats.
- India has a bilateral understanding with Nepal on controlling trans-boundary illegal trade in wildlife
- India has signed a protocol on tiger conservation with China.
- India has signed a with Bangladesh for the conservation of the Royal Bengal Tiger.
- A sub-group on tiger/leopard conservation has been constituted for cooperation with the Russian Federation.
- A Global Tiger Forum of Tiger Range Countries has been created for addressing international issues related to tiger conservation.
- India is a party to CITES. CITES’s landmark decision states that ‘tigers should not be bred for trade in their parts and derivatives’.
List of Tiger Reserves in India
|S.No.||Name of Tiger Reserve||State|
|Amangarh (buffer of Corbett TR)||Uttar Pradesh|
|39||Biligiri Ranganatha Temple||Karnataka|
|44||Nagarjunsagar Srisailam||Andhra Pradesh|
|48||Rajaji Tige Reserve||Uttarakhand|
|49||Orang Tiger Reserve||Assam|
|50||Kamlang Tiger Reserve||Arunachal Pradesh|
|51||Srivilliputhur-Megamalai Tiger Reserve||Tamil Nadu|
BR: Biosphere Reserve
NP: National Park
TR: Tiger Reserve.
WS: Wildlife Sanctuary
BS: Bird Sanctuary
PF: Protected Forest
RF: Reserve Forest
ER: Elephant Reserve
- Kamlang river
- Lohit district
- Tropical, Subtropical
- Tiger, leopard, clouded leopard, snow leopard
- Mishmi, Digaru, Mizo tribes
- It is separated from Namdapha by the Lang River
2. Namdapha, Arunachal
- Changlang district
- Biodiversity hotspots in Eastern Himalayas
- The fourth-largest national park of India
- Mishmi and Patkai Bum hills
- Evergreen, tropical, semi-tropical, temperate, arctic
- Tiger, leopard, clouded leopard, snow leopard
- Palearctic and Indo-Malayan biogeographic areas
- Namdapha Flying Squirrel which is endemic and critically endangered
- Dhole, red panda, marbled cat, fishing cat, binturong, takin, Bharal, serow, capped langur
3. Pakhui(Pakke), Arunachal
- East Kameng District
- Hornbill is found
- Kameng River
- Nameri National Park of Assam is nearby.
4. Kaziranga, Assam
- Golaghat, Karbi Angling and Nagaon districts
- Famous for Great One-horned rhinoceros
- Highest tiger density
- Elephants, wild water buffalo
- Brahmaputra river
- Elephant reserve, National park, Biodiversity hotspot
- It is not a biosphere reserve.
- Important bird area by Birdlife International
5. Manas, Assam
- TR, NP, BR, UNESCO World Heritage Site
- Royal Manas NP in Bhutan is contiguous
- Manas river flows through it which is a tributary of Brahmaputra river
- Assam roofed turtle, hispid hare, golden langur, pygmy hog, wild water buffalo
6. Nameri, Assam
- Sonitpur district of Assam
- Lies just south of Pakke Tiger Reserve of Arunachal Pradesh
7. Orang, Assam
- Brahmaputra river
- Darrang and Sonitpur district
- Indian Rhinoceros, Pygmy hog, Asian elephant, wild water buffalo, Bengal tiger
- It is the only stronghold of rhinoceros on the north bank of the Brahmaputra river.
8. Dampa, Mizoram
- Lushai Hills
9. Rajaji TR, Uttarakhand
- Named after C. Rajagopalchari
- Ganga and Song rivers
- Goral is found here
- Asian elephant, Bengal tiger, Leopard, Jungle cat, striped hyena, Goral
10. Corbett , Uttarakhand
- Oldest NP of India, created in 1936
- Earlier called Hailey National Park
- Nainital and Pauli Garhwal districts
- Ramganga river
- The first national park of Asia
- Spotted dear, sambar deer, elephant, tawny fish owl, golden jackal
11. Dudhawa, UP
- Billy Arjan Singh
- Lakhimpur Kheri district
- Indian rhinoceros
- Swamp deer, Sambar deer, barking deer, spotted deer, hog deer, sloth beer, ratel, jackal, civets, jungle cats, fishing cat, leopard cat
12. Pilibhit, UP
- Pilibhit, Lakhimpur Kheri, Bahraich districts
- River Sharada( Mahakali), River Ghagara
13. Valmiki , Bihar
- West Champaran district
- Royal Chitwan national park of Nepal is contiguous
- River Gandak
- Barking deer, spotted deer, hog deer, sambar, blue bull, spotted hyena, leopard cat, wild cat, fishing cat, flying squirrel, clouded leopard, Indian gaur, Mongoose
14. Palamu TR, Jharkhand
- Betla NP and Palamu WS
- Naxal affected
- One among the original 9 tiger reserves
- North Koel river
15. Sunderbans, WB
- NP, TR, BR
- Ganges river
- Mangrove- ecotone
- Also in Bangladesh
- Saltwater crocodile
- Recently declared Ramsar site
- UNESCO World Heritage site
16. Buxa, WB
- North part of WB
- Near Manas TR
- Asian elephant, gaur, sambar deer, clouded leopard, Indian leopard, Bengal tiger
17. Simlipal, Odissa
- Mayurbhanj district
- red silk cotton trees
- World Network of Biosphere Reserves
- 12 small rivers are there
- Bengal tiger, Asian elephant, gaur, chausingha
18. Satkosia, Odissa
- Angul district of Odisha
- Mahanadi river
- Slightly southward of Simlipal TR
- Sawai Man Singh Sanctuary and Keladevi Sanctuary
- Indian leopard, Nilgai, Wild boar, Sambar, Striped hyena, Sloth bear
- Banas and Chambal rivers
20. Sariska, Rajasthan
- Alwar district
- Copper and marble mining
- Indian leopard, jungle cat, caracal, striped hyena, golden jackal, chital, sambar deer, nilgai
- All tigers in Sariska became extinct in 2005
21. Mukundra Hills, Rajasthan
- Darrah, Chambal and Jawahar Sagar WSs
- Chambal river
- It was considered for the introduction of the Asiatic lion.
22. Achanmakar, Chattisgarh
- Mungeli district
- Achanmakar- Amarkantak BR
- Indian leopard, gaur, chital, striped hyena, Indian jackal , sloth bear
23. Udanti-Sitanadi, Chattisgarh
- Udanti and Sitanadi Was
- Sitanadi river
- Indravati river
- Wild Asian buffalo, Nilgai, Blackbuck, Chowsingha, sambar, chital, Indian muntjac, tiger, leopard, sloth bear, dholes
25. Panna, MP
- Will be submerged because of Ken-Betwa interlinking
- Ken river passes through it
- 2012 tiger extinction
- Chital, chinkara, nilgai, sambar, sloth bear
26. Bandhavgarh, MP
- Umaria district
- White tiger used to be found
- Sambar, barking deer, nilgai, caracal, striped hyena, Indian wolf
27. Sanjay-Dhubri, MP
- Some part is in Chattisgarh( Guru Ghasidas NP)
- Bengal tiger, the Indian Leopard, spotted deer, sambar deer, wild boar, nilgai, chinkara, civet, porcupine
28. Kanha, MP
- Kanha-Kisli National Park
- Largest NP of Madhya Pradesh
- Royal Bengal Tiger, Indian leopards, Sloth Bear, Barasingha, Indian wild Dog
- The forest is depicted in Rudyard Kipling’s Jungle Book
- First TR to have a mascot- Bhoorsingh, the Barasingha
29. Satpura, MP
- Satpura Range
- Indian bison, tigers, Dholes, Blackbuck, Porcupine,Sambar,Barasingha, Flying Squirrels
30. Pench, MP
- Both in MP and Maharastra
- Southern slopes of Satpura
- Pench river
- Chital,Sambar, Gaur, Nilgai, Wild pig, Indian muntjac, Chowsingha
31. Nawagaon-Nagzira, Maharastra
- Nawagaon means new village
- Dr. Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary
- Gondia district
- Formed out of 2 WSs
32. Pench, Maharastra
- Also in MP
33. Bor TR, Maharastra
- Wardha district
- Bor Dam
34. Tadoba- Andhari, Maharastra
- Tadoba NP and Andhari WS
- Maharastra’s oldest and largest NP
- Chandrapura district
- Andhari river
35. Sahyadari, Maharastra
- Westernmost TR of India
36. Melghat, Maharastra
- Among the first 9 TR
- Amravati district
- Satpura range
- Tapti river
- Bengal tiger, Indian leopard, Sloth bear, Indian jackal, sambar, gaur, barking deer, nilgai, cheetal
- Found both in AP and Telanghana
- Nallamalla hills
- Krishna river
- Largest TR of India
- Lies in the Nallamala Hills of Telangana.
- It is India’s second-largest tiger reserve, next only to Nagarjunasagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve (Andhra Pradesh and Telangana).
- It has a large presence of the Chenchu tribe.
39. Kawal TR, Telanghana
- Godavari and Kadam rivers
40. Parambikulam, Kerala
- Palakkad district
- Anamalai hills
- Lion-tailed macaque, Nilgiri Tahr, Elephants, Bengal tigers,Indian leopards, Wild boar, Sambar, Travancore Flying Squirrel
41. Periyar, Kerala
- Sabrimala temple
- TR, ER
- Periyar and Pamba rivers
- Cardamom hills and Pandalam hills
- Mullaperiyar dam
42. Sathyamangalam, TN
- Erode district
- Wildlife corridor in Nilgiri between Western Ghat and Eastern Ghat
43. Mudumalai, TN
- Nilgiri hills
- Indian elephant, Bengal tiger, Gaur, Indian leopard
44. Anamalai, TN
- Anamalai hills
- Indira Gandhi WS and NP
- Also called Topslip
45. Kalakad- Mundathurai TR, TN
- Western Ghats
- Part of Agasthyamalai BR
- Southernmost TR
46. Dandeli- Anshi, Karnataka
- Uttara Kannada district
- Bengal tigers, Black panthers, Indian elephants
- Kali river
- Western Ghat
47. Bhadra, Karnataka
- Bhadra river
- Bada Budan Giri range
48. Nagarhole, Karnataka
- Kodagu and Mysore district
- Nilgiri BR
- Tiger, Gaur, Elephant, Indian Leopard, Deer
- Brahmagiri hills
- Kabini reservoir separates Bandipore and Nagarhole
- Kabini river
49. Bandipore, Karnataka
- Kabini river in north and Moyar river in south
- Night traffic ban
- Lantana lace used to remove Lantana weed
- Indian elephants, Gaurs, tigers, sloth bears, muggers, Indian rock pythons, Four-horned antelopes, jackals, dholes
50. BRT, Karnataka
- Biligiri Rangana Hills
- Biligiri Rangana Swamy Temple WS
- Connects Eastern and the Western Ghats
51. Srivilliputhur-Megamalai TR, Tamil Nadu
- The Srivilliputhur Megamalai Tiger Reserve will span the forests of Megamalai wildlife sanctuary and Srivilliputhur grizzled squirrel wildlife sanctuary.
- Srivilluputhur hosts leopards, Nilgiri tahrs, Lion tailed macaques, jungle cats, and sambars.
Q. In which of the following states is Pakhui Wildlife Sanctuary? (2018)
A. Arunachal Pradesh
Q. What is M-STRIPES? (2017)
A. Captive breeding of wild fauna
B. Maintenance of tiger reserves
C. Indigenous satellite navigation system
D. Security of National Highways
Q. From an ecological point of view, Which one of the following assumes importance in being a good link between the Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats?
A. Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve
B. Nallamala Forest
C. Nagarhole National Park
D. Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve
Q. In India, if a species of tortoise is declared protected under Schedule 1 of Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, what does it imply?
A. It enjoys the same level of protection as the tiger
B. It no longer exists in the wild and will become extinct
C. It is endemic to a particular region
D. Both b and c are correct
Q. Recently there was a proposal to translocate some of the lions from Gujarat to which site?
A. Corbett National Park
B. Kuno Palpur Wildlife Sanctuary
C. Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary
D. Sariska National Park
Q. Consider the following pairs
1. Dampa Tiger Reserve: Mizoram
2. Gumti Wildlife Sanctuary: Sikkim
3. Saramati Peak: Nagaland
A. 1 only
B. 2 and 3 only
C. 1 and 3 only
D. 1,2 and 3
Q. Which of the following pairs are correctly matched?
1. Corbett National Park: Ganga
2. Kaziranga National Park: Manas
3. Silent Valley National Park: Kaveri
A. 1 and 2
B. 3 only
C. 1 and 3
Q. Which of the following are declared Tiger Reserves?
A. 1,2 and 3
B. 1,3 and
C. 2,3 and 4
D. All of the above