Andhra Pradesh National Parks, Tiger Reserves

Andhra Pradesh National Parks, Tiger Reserves, Wildlife Sanctuaries & Ramsar Sites

Nagarjunasagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve

  • It is the largest Tiger Reserve in India. It spreads over Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.
  • It is located inside the Nallamala Hills & the Krishna River cuts through the reserve. 
  • Srisailam reservoir and Nagarjunasagar reservoir lies within the reserve.
  • Vegetation: tropical dry mixed deciduous forest.
  • Major Fauna: Bengal tiger (EN), leopard, Indian pangolin (EN), spotted deer (chital) (LC), sambar (VU), blackbuck, chinkara, four-horned antelope (chausingha) (VU), mugger (marsh crocodile) (VU), etc.

Papikonda National Park

  • It is located in the Papi Hills of Eastern Ghats. It is an Important Bird and Biodiversity Area.
  • Major Fauna: Bengal tiger, leopard, hyena, Indian gaur, sloth bear, spotted deer (chital), sambar, barking deer (or Indian muntjac), four-horned antelope (chausingha), kanchu mekha (an endemic dwarf goat).
  • Major Avifauna: Common peacock, red jungle fowl.
  • Major Reptiles: Indian golden gecko, monitor lizard.
  • The National Park has a population of both Rhesus macaque (normally found north of Godavari) and Bonnet macaque (usually found south of Godavari).
  • No part of Papikonda remains outside East and West Godavari districts after 2014 and the construction of Polavaram Dam.
  • Threats: Polavaram irrigation project (will submerge parts of the National Park), and clearing forest for Podu cultivation.

Rajiv Gandhi (Rameswaram) National Park

  • It is located in Rameswaram of Kadapa district.
  • It lies on the north bank of the Penna River. Most of it is sandy.
  • Vegetation: tropical dry deciduous forests.
  • Major Fauna: Spotted deer (chital), mongoose.
  • Major Avifauna: Little egrets, parakeets.
  • Major Amphibian Fauna: Bull frog.
  • Major Reptilian Fauna: Burrowing snakes (Russell, earth boa, John and boa).

Sri Venkateswara National Park, Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Sri Venkateswara National Park is a national park and biosphere reserve in Tirupati of Andhra Pradesh.
  • It is a part of the Seshachalam Hills Biosphere Reserve. It spreads over the Seshachalam hills and the Tirumala hills of Eastern Ghats.
  • Vegetation: Dry deciduous and moist deciduous types.
  • Major Flora: Red sanders.
  • Major Fauna: Slender loris, leopard, sloth bear, mouse deer, chausingha, Indian giant squirrel.
  • Major Avifauna: Grey hornbill, pied kingfisher, etc.
  • Major Reptilian Fauna: Indian golden gecko.
  • Threats: Construction and quarrying.

Wildlife Sanctuaries of Andhra Pradesh

Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary is an estuary situated near Kakinada in Andhra Pradesh.
  • It is a part of the Godavari estuary (delta).
  • It is home to the critically endangered white-backed vulture and the long billed vulture (Indian Vulture).
  • Major Fauna: Smooth-coated otter (VU), olive ridley sea turtles (VU), estuarine crocodile (saltwater crocodile; LC).
  • Vegetation: Mangroves and dry deciduous tropical forest.

Gundla Brahmeswaram Wildlife Sanctuary

  • It is located in the periphery Nagarjunasagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve in the Nallamala Hills.
  • It is located between Mantralamma kanuma and Nandi kanuma hill passes.
  • It has a significant tiger population.
  • The Gundlakamma River flows through the sanctuary.

Koundinya Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Kaundinya Wildlife Sanctuary is a wildlife sanctuary and an elephant reserve situated in Andhra Pradesh.
  • It is located along the Andhra and Tamil Nadu border.
  • It is the only sanctuary in Andhra Pradesh with a population of Asian elephants, which migrated after 200 years from neighbouring regions.
  • Kalyana Revu WaterFalls (also called Kalyan Drive Falls) is a waterfall located to the North of Palamaner in the Chittoor district of India in the Koudinya Wildlife Sanctuary. Kaigal Waterfalls is a waterfall located to the west of Palamaner in the Chittoor district of India in the Koudinya Wildlife Sanctuary

Kolleru WLS (BS)

  • It is the largest freshwater lake in India.
  • It is located in Andhra Pradesh between the Krishna and Godavari deltas and covers an area of 308 km². The lake serves as a natural flood-balancing reservoir for these two rivers.
  • The lake is fed directly by water from the seasonal Budameru and Tammileru streams, and is connected to the Krishna and Godavari systems by over 68 inflowing drains and channels.
  • The sanctuary protects part of the Kolleru Lake wetland, which gained Ramsar Convention for International importance in 2002.
  • It is a crucial wetland ecosystem and serves as a stopover point for migratory birds.
  • Flora: The sanctuary’s flora includes various aquatic plants, submerged macrophytes, and wetland vegetation that provide essential food and shelter for the diverse bird species.
  • Fauna: Commonly found birds in the sanctuary are: little egret, cattle egret, pied kingfisher, small blue kingfisher, blackcapped kingfisher, pond heron, reef heron, grey heron, night heron, etc.

Krishna Wildlife Sanctuary

  • The sanctuary is a part of the mangrove wetland in Andhra Pradesh and is located in the coastal plain of Krishna delta, spread across Krishna and Guntur districts of Andhra Pradesh.
  • The estuary of the Krishna River passes through the sanctuary.
  • It is believed that this region potentially holds one of the most significant populations of fishing cats in the world.

Pulicat Lake Wildlife Sanctuary (BS)

  • It is located in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
  • It is India’s second largest brackish-water eco-system after Chilka lake in Odisha.
  • The sanctuary has many greater flamingos.

Rollapadu Wildlife Sanctuary (BS)

  • Located in the Nandyal district of Andhra Pradesh.
  • It was established to protect Great Indian Bustard (CR) and Lesser florican  (CR).

Sri Lankamalleswara Wildlife Sanctuary

  • It is located in the southern part of the Nallamala Hills.
  • The Wildlife Sanctuary is known for Jerdon’s courser bird (CR)
  • Penna River separates the Nallamala Hills from Palkonda hills.
  • Threats: Red sanders smuggling.

Sri Penusila Narasimha Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Located in Nellore District of Andhra Pradesh.
  • It comprises a unique forest type viz. the dry evergreen forests.
  • Such vegetation is unique to the Coromandel Coast (Tamil Nadu, Puducherry and Andhra Pradesh).

Kambalakonda Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Located in Vishakhapatnam.
  • It was named after the local hillock Kambalakonda.

Nellapattu Wildlife Sanctuary (BS)

  • Located in Nellore district.
  • Southern dry evergreen scrub covers most of the sanctuary.
  • Commonly found species: Spotted Belied Pelican, Spoon Bill, White Ibis, Night Heron, Open Billed Stork, Painted Stork, Little Cormorant and Spoon Bill.

Ramsar Sites of Andhra Pradesh

Kolleru Lake

  • Kolleru Lake is one of the largest freshwater lakes in India located in state of Andhra Pradesh.
  • It is a naturally eutrophic (nutrient-rich) lake between the Godavari and the Krishna river basins. 
  • It was previously a lagoon, but now it is several kilometres inland due to the coastline of emergence and delta formation. Two seasonal rivers directly feed it. It sustains both culture and capture fisheries, agriculture and related occupations.
  • Kolleru lake contains numerous fertile islets called lankas.
  • Endangered Fauna: Grey Pelican/Spot-Billed Pelican (VU)
  • Threats: paddy cultivation, overexploitation, flooding in monsoon season, etc.

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