Assam National Parks, Tiger Reserves

Assam National Parks, Tiger Reserves, Wildlife Sanctuaries & Ramsar Sites Map
Assam National Parks, Tiger Reserves, Wildlife Sanctuaries & Ramsar Sites Map

Dihing Patkai National Park, Wildlife Sanctuary, ER

  • It is located within the larger Dehing Patkai Elephant Reserve, which spreads across the coal- and oil-rich districts of Upper Assam (Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts).
  • Dehing is the name of the river that flows through this forest and Patkai is the hill at the foot of which the sanctuary lies.
  • The Dehing Patkai Wildlife Sanctuary is also known as the Jeypore Rainforest, it harbours the largest stretch of lowland rainforests in India.
  • The Digboi Oil Refinery (the oldest refinery of Asia) and Lido Coal Mines are located near the park.
  • It has the highest concentration of the White Winged Wood Duck (EN), the state bird of Assam.
  • Vegetation: Assam Valley tropical wet evergreen forest (rainforest with distinct four layers).
  • Major Fauna:
    • Rare fauna found in the region include Chinese pangolin, flying fox, wild pig, sambar, barking deer, gaurserow and Malayan giant squirrels.
    • It is the only sanctuary in India which is home to seven different species of wild cats – tiger, leopard, clouded leopard, leopard cat, golden cat, jungle cat and marbled cat.
    • Assamese macaque, a primate found in the forest, is in the red list of Near Threatened species.
    • It has the highest concentration of the rare endangered White Winged Wood Duck.
  • Major Avifauna: Oriental darter, lesser adjutant, greater spotted eagle, hornbills, hill myna.
  • Threats: Coal miningoil extraction, tea gardens, village settlements, deforestation.

Dibru-Saikhowa National Park, Biosphere Reserve

  • Dibru-Saikhowa National Park is located in Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts, Assam. It was designated a Biosphere Reserve in July 1997.
  • It is bounded by the Brahmaputra and Lohit Rivers in the north and Dibru River in the south.
  • It is famous for Feral horses (descendants of horses who bolted out of stables set up by the British Army in and around Tinsukia during World War II).
  • Vegetation: Wet evergreen and semi-evergreen, deciduous, littoral and swamp forests.
  • Major Fauna: Bengal tiger, Indian leopard, clouded leopard, sloth bear, dhole, Gangetic dolphin, Asian elephant, wild boar, sambar, hog deer, barking deer.

Kaziranga Tiger Reserve, National Park

  • Kaziranga National Park is a prestigious national park of India situated in the northeastern part of the country in the district of Golaghat and Nagoan in the state of Assam.
  • It was created in the year of 1904. It was declared a National Park in 1974. It was declared a tiger reserve in 2007.
  • It lies in the Eastern Himalayan biodiversity hotspot and the Brahmaputra River flows through the park.
  • This park which hosts 2/3rd of the world’s one-horned rhinoceroses, is a World Heritage Site. It is recognized as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International.
  • Vegetation: Alluvial grasslands and savanna woodlands, and tropical moist deciduous and semi-evergreen forests.
  • Major Flora: Spear grass, elephant grass, common reed, cotton tree, and elephant apple.
  • Major Fauna: One-Horned rhinoceros (VU), Royal Bengal Tiger, Asian elephant, wild water buffalo (EN) and swamp deer are collectively known as the ‘Big Five’ of Kaziranga. Other important fauna: fishing cat, small Indian civets, sloth bear, Chinese pangolin, Indian pangolins.
  • Threats: Floods and encroachment by people.
  • Rivers and Highways:
    • The National Highway 37 passes through the park area.
    • The park also has more than 250 seasonal water bodies, besides the Diphlu River running through it.
One-horned Rhino:
  • The greater one-horned rhino (or “Indian rhino”) is the largest of the rhino species.
  • It is found in Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan and India.
  • It is Vulnerable in the IUCN Red List and lies in Schedule I of the Wildlife Protection Act.
  • It is in Appendix I of the  Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES):
  • India is home to over 85 % population. It is found in UP, West Bengal and Assam.
  • According to WWF data from 2012, Assam has 91 % of the total Rhino in India which is mainly concentrated in Kaziranga National Park, and Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary. Others include Manas Tiger Reserve, Orang Tiger Reserve and Laokhowa Reserved Forests
  • There are five rhino species:
    • Great One horned rhino- Vulnerable in the IUCN Red List.
    • White rhinos – near threatened in the IUCN Red List.
    • Black rhinos in Africa – critically endangered in the IUCN Red List.
    • Javan rhino- Critically endangered in IUCN Red List.
    • Sumatran rhinos- extinct.
One-horned Rhino

Manas Biosphere Reserve, National Park, Tiger Reserve, ER

  • It is a UNESCO Natural World Heritage site located on the Himalayan Foothills. It is contiguous with the Royal Manas National Park (Bhutan)
  • Manas river (a tributary of Brahmaputra) passes through the heart of the National Park.
  • The bhabar-terai region with riverine succession makes it one of the richest areas of biodiversity.
  • Vegetation: Semi-evergreen forests, moist and dry deciduous forests, savanna woodland, and grasslands.
  • Major Fauna: Hispid hare, pygmy hog, wild water buffalo (EN), rhinoceros (reintroduced in 2007), elephants, sambar, Chinese pangolin, clouded leopards.
  • Major Avifauna: It has the world’s largest population of the endangered Bengal florican. Other major bird species include great hornbills, pelicans, eagles, and herons.

Nameri National Park, Tiger Reserve

  • Nameri National Park is in the foothills of the eastern Himalayas in the Sonitpur District of Assam. It is part of the Eastern Himalayan biodiversity hotspot.
  • Kameng River flows along its southern boundary. Its northern boundary is shared with the Pakke Tiger Reserve.
    • The river Jia-Bhoroli is the lifeline of Nameri, which flows along the southern boundary of the park from northwest to southeast. In the east, the river Bor-Dikorai is a tributary of river Jia-Bhoroli, flowing along the southern boundary from northeast to southwest.
  • It has two core areas: Nameri National ParkSonai-Rupai Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • Major Flora: Ajar, hollock, nahor and orchids.
  • Major Fauna: Tiger, leopard, sambar, dhole, gaur, clouded leopard (VU), barking deer, marbled cat, Himalayan black bear, capped langur, Indian giant squirrel.
    • It is particularly famous for its population of the Bengal tiger and the Indian elephant.
  • Major Avifauna: White-winged wood duck.
  • Threats: Logging, human-elephant conflict, poaching.

Orang National Park, Tiger Reserve

  • Orang National Park is located in the Darrang and Sonitpur districts of Assam.
  • It lies on the  northern bank of the Brahmaputra River. Pachnoi River, Belsiri River and Dhanshiri River border the park.
  • The park, formed of alluvial flood plains, is an integral part of the Indo-Burma hotspot of biodiversity.
  • It is also known as the mini Kaziranga National Park (IUCN site) since the two parks have a similar landscape made up of marshes, streams and grasslands and are inhabited by the Great Indian One-Horned Rhinoceros.
  • Vegetation: Moist deciduous forest, swamp forest, wet alluvial and savannah grassland.
  • Major Fauna: Indian rhinoceros (VU), pygmy hog (EN), Asian elephant, wild water buffalo (EN), Bengal tiger, hog deer, Gangetic dolphin (EN), Indian pangolin (EN).
  • Non-human Primates: Rhesus macaque
  • Threats: Illegal occupation by immigrants, poaching, and wide river channels.

Raimona National Park

  • The Raimona National Park is within the Bodoland Territorial Region.
  • It is located along the Himalayan foothills together with Buxa Tiger Reserve of West Bengal and Phipsoo Wildlife Sanctuary and Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park of Bhutan.
  • It is bounded by the Sankosh River on the west, the Saralbhanga River on the east, the Indo-Bhutan border on the north and Ripu RF on the south. The Pekua river defines Raimona’s southern boundary.
  • Vegetation: Moist deciduous and semi-evergreen forest.
  • Major Fauna: Asian elephant, Bengal tiger, clouded leopard (VU), Indian gaur, wild water buffalo, chital, hornbill.
  • Non-human Primates: Golden langur (EN) (endemic to the region; named as the mascot of Bodoland region).
  • Major Avifauna: White-bellied heron, Oriental darter, lesser adjutant, Bengal florican, hill myna.

Wildlife Sanctuaries of Assam

Barak Bhuban Wildlife Sanctuary

  • It is a proposed Wildlife Sanctuary in Assam’s Barak Valley (between the Barak River and the Sonai River).
  • Major Fauna: Slow loris, rhesus macaque, pig-tailed macaque, stump-tailed macaque, Assamese macaque, capped langur, hoolock gibbon.

Barnadi Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Barnadi Wildlife Sanctuary (BWS) is located in northern Assam’s Baksa and Udalguri districts bordering Bhutan.
  • The Sanctuary is bordered by the Barnadi river and Nalapara river to the west and east respectively.
  • It was established to protect the hispid hare (EN) and pigmy hog (EN).
  • Biodiversity:
    • This is important for threatened species such as the Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus)Tiger (Panthera tigris) and Gaur Bos frontalis.
    • About 60% of the BWS is reported to be grassland, most of it is now grassy woodland.
    • The main Forest types are Tropical Moist Deciduous along the northern edge of the Sanctuary, and mixed scrub and grassland in the southern part with few trees.
  • Vegetation:
    • The vegetation has been drastically modified by human activity.
    • Most of the natural vegetation has been cleared and replaced by commercial plantations of Bombax ceiba, Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus and by thatch grasses (mostly Saccharum, with some Phragmites and Themeda).

Burachapari Wildlife Sanctuary

  • It is situated on the south bank of the Brahmaputra River.
  • It forms an integral part of the Laokhowa-Burachapori eco-system and is a notified buffer of the Kaziranga Tiger reserve.
  • It is home to the Great Indian one-horned rhinoceros, tiger, leopard, wild buffalo, hog deer, wild pig, and elephants.
  • It includes the highly endangered Bengal Florican.
  • It also makes it an ideal breeding place for several species of migratory birds during the winter season.
Bengal florican
  • Also called the Bengal bustard, is a bustard species native to the Indian subcontinent, Cambodia, and Vietnam.
  • The Bengal florican has two disjunct populations.
    • One occurs from Uttar Pradesh through the Terai of Nepal to Assam and Arunachal Pradesh in India, and historically to Bangladesh.
    • The other occurs in Cambodia and perhaps adjacent southern Vietnam.
  • Migrations are not long-distance, however, and probably are restricted to a few dozen kilometers.
  • Bengal floricans live in open tall grassland habitats with scattered bushes.
Bengal florican

Chakrasila Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Chakrashila Wildlife Sanctuary is falling under Kokrajhar district and some adjacent areas of Dhubri district of Assam.
  • It is situated on the north bank of the Brahmaputra River.
  • It is an important protected habitat for golden langur (EN) after Manas National Park.
  • The sanctuary is mainly a hilly tract running north–south and there are two lakes (Dheer Beel and Diplai Beel) on either side, which are integral to the eco-system of the sanctuary.

Deepor Beel Wildlife Sanctuary (Ramsar Site)

  • It is a permanent freshwater lake in a former channel of the Brahmaputra river.
  • It is a few kilometres to the left of Guwahati, whereas Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary is around 35 km to the right.

Dihing Patkai Wildlife Sanctuary

  • It is situated on the Assam-Arunachal border.
  • The Dihing River originates in the Patkai Bum Hills (Arunachal Pradesh & Myanmar border) and flows through this Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • It was recently upgraded to a National Park.

Garampani Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Located in Karbi Anglong district, Assam.
  • It is located adjacent to Nambor Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • It contains hot water spring and waterfalls.

Hollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary, formerly known as Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, is located in Assam’s Jorhat district, India.
  • It contains India’s only apes – the hoolock gibbons (EN), and North-eastern India’s only nocturnal primate – the Bengal slow loris (VU)
  • Threats: Tea gardens.
Hoolock Gibbons
  • Hoolock Gibbons, known as the smallest and fastest of all apes, inhabit tropical and subtropical forests in Southeast Asia.
  • They have high intelligence, distinct personalities, and strong family bonds similar to other apes.
  • They represent one of the 20 gibbon species found worldwide.
  • Hoolock Gibbons are India’s only ape species.
  • Gibbon Species in India:
    • Western Hoolock Gibbon (Hoolock hoolock):
      • It inhibits in all the states of the north-east, restricted between the south of the Brahmaputra River and east of the Dibang River. Outside India, it is found in eastern Bangladesh and north-west Myanmar.
      • IUCN: Endangered
    • Eastern Hoolock Gibbon (Hoolock leuconedys):
      • It inhabits specific pockets of Arunachal Pradesh and Assam in India, and in southern China and north-east Myanmar outside India.
      • IUCN Red List: Vulnerable
    • In India, both species are listed on Schedule 1 of the Indian (Wildlife) Protection Act 1972.
  • Characteristics:
    • They are known for their distinct white eyebrows, long arms, and a throat sac used for vocalizations.
  • Arboreal Lifestyle:
    • Gibbons are exclusively arboreal, spending their lives in the treetops of tropical forests.

Lawkhowa Wildlife Sanctuary

  • It is situated between Kaziranga National Park and Orang National Park, on the south bank of the Brahmaputra River in Nagaon district, Assam.
  • It is an ideal habitat for Indian rhinoceros (VU) and Asiatic water buffaloes (EN).
    • Other animals found here are the Bengal tiger, Indian leopard, Indian boar, leopard cat, hog deer.
  • It is a part of the Laokhowa-Burachapori eco-system.

Marat Longri Wildlife Sanctuary

  • It is located a few kilometres from Diphu, Karbi Anglong.
  • It is an important component of Dhansiri-Lungding Elephant Reserve.
  • It is part of the Karbi plateau and the plains of the Kopili and Diyung rivers, with the Jamuna River marking its northern boundary.
  • The sanctuary falls under a tropical monsoon climate zone, with hot and wet summers and cool and dry winters.
  • The area also includes abandoned jhums (slash-and-burn shifting cultivation) covered with various grasses and shrubs, as well as plantations of teak, Gmelina, and Albizzia.

Nambor Wildlife Sanctuary

  • It is located on the periphery of the Mikir Hills (Karbi Anglong Plateau).
  • Together with Garampani Wildlife Sanctuary of Karbi Anglong and Nambor-Doigrung Wildlife Sanctuary of Golaghat distrcit it forms a larger complex of wilderness.

Nambor-Doigrung Wildlife Sanctuary

  • It is located in the Golaghat district in Assam.
  • The sanctuary along with Garampani Wildlife Sanctuary, Nambor Wildlife Sanctuary are part of the Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong ER.

Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary is on the southern bank of the Brahmaputra in Morigaon district in Assam.
  • Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary holds one of the largest Indian rhinoceros populations in Assam.
  • Pobitora (Mini Kaziranga) has exceeded its rhino-bearing capacity. Under the Indian Rhino Vision 2020 (IRV 2020) several rhinos were Translocated from Pobitora and re-introduced into the Manas National Park.
  •  It is also an Important Bird Area.

Pani-Dihing Wildlife Sanctuary (BS)

  • It is to the north-east of Hollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • Pani-Dihing is a complex of grassland and wetland.
  • The sanctuary is bordered by the Brahmaputra and the Disang rivers in the north west and south respectively.

Sonai Rupai Wildlife Sanctuary

  • The Sonai Rupai Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the north-western part of Sonitpur district in Assam.
  • It is located to the west of Pakke Tiger Reserve (Arunachal Pradesh) and Nameri National Park (Assam).
  • It is located along the foothills of the Great Himalayan Range

Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Located on the fringe of Guwahati (between Guwahati & Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary).
  • It is known for its elephants which have become isolated with no movement with other elephant-populations.
  • It stretches from the Brahmaputra River in the north to the hilly forests of Meghalaya in the south, forming a continuous forest belt through Meghalaya’s Maradakdola Reserve Forests.
  • Flora: Khasi Hill Sal Forests, East Himalayan Mixed Deciduous Forest, Eastern Alluvial Secondary Semi-evergreen Forests and East Himalayan Sal Forests.
  • Fauna: Flying fox, Slow loris, Assamese macaque, Rhesus macaque, Hoolock gibbon, Porcupine. White-backed Vulture, Slender-billed Vulture.
  • Tree yellow butterflies (gancana harina) are found at the Amchang wildlife sanctuary which is indigenous to Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and northeast India

Barail Wildlife Sanctuary

  • The Barail Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Cachar district of Assam, India. It is situated southern part of Assam.
  • The sanctuary consists of the North Cachar Reserved Forest and Barail Reserved Forest, located within Cachar district.

East Karbi Anglong Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Near Diphu, East Karbi Anglong district.
  • It is also known as the “East Karbi Anglong Reserve Forest”.
  • he dominant forest types in the sanctuary are Tropical Semi-evergreen forests, with patches of Tropical Moist Deciduous forests.

Ramsar Sites of Assam

Deepor Beel

  • It is one of the largest freshwater lakes in Assam and the State’s only Ramsar site besides being an Important Bird Area by Birdlife International.
  • It is located towards the southwest of Guwahati city, Assam and is the erstwhile water channel of River Brahmaputra.
  • Deepor Beel adjoins the Rani Reserve Forest from where herds of elephants come periodically to forage in the wetland.
  • Threats: over-fishing, hunting, pollution from pesticides, and infestation by water hyacinth.
  • Endangered Avifauna: Grey Pelican or Spot-billed pelican (VU), Lesser Adjutant Stork (VU), Greater Adjutant Stork (EN), Baer’s Pochard (CR).

Subscribe
Notify of
guest
1 Comment
Oldest
Newest Most Voted
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments
Ali Hamja

So well researched Content Thank You …….