- National Parks in India act as an apt place for preserving animals by providing natural habitat and prey. Anthropogenic activities like developmental activities, industrial activities, forestry, poaching, hunting, and cultivation are not permitted.
- The boundaries of National Parks are well defined and no private activities are allowed inside the National Park.
- A national park has more restrictions as compared to a wildlife sanctuary. Their boundaries are fixed and defined.
- Here, no human activity is allowed. They cannot be downgraded to the status of a ‘sanctuary’. National parks can be declared both by the Central Government and State governments.
- National parks in India are IUCN category II protected areas. India’s first national park was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park, now known as Jim Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand.
- By 1970, India only had five national parks. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard the habitats of conservation-reliant species.
- As of June 2021, there were 106 national parks encompassing an area of 40,501.13 km2 (15,637.57 sq mi), under-protected areas of India category II comprising 1.33% of India’s total surface area.
- The Chief Wildlife Warden shall be the authority who shall control, manage, and maintain all protected areas.
Declaration of the Protected Area by the State government:
- Initial notification: The State government may, by notification, declare its intention to constitute any area within or outside any reserve forest as a sanctuary/national park if it considers that such area is of adequate ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphological, natural, or zoological significance, for the purpose of protecting, propagating or developing wildlife or its environment.
- Final notification: After the initial notification has been issued and the period for preferring claims has elapsed, the State government may issue a notification specifying the limits of the area which can be comprised within the sanctuary and declare the said area shall be a sanctuary/national park from such date as may be specified in the notification.
Declared by the Central government:
- The Central Government may declare an area to be a sanctuary/national park if it is satisfied that the area is of adequate ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphological, natural, or zoological significance, for the purpose of protecting, propagating or developing wildlife or its environment.
List of National Parks of India
Complete list of National Parks in India: State-wise
Top ten Largest National Parks in India
|RANK||NAME||ESTABLISHED||AREA IN SQ KM||STATE||FAMOUS FOR|
|1||Hemis National Park||1981||4400||Ladhak||Snow Leopards|
|2||Desert National Park||1981||3162||Rajasthan||Great Indian Bustard|
|3||Simlipal National Park||1980||2750||Odisha||Royal Bengal Tiger and Asian elephant|
|4||Gangotri National Park||1989||2390||Uttarakhand||Gaumukh Glacier|
|5||Namdapha National Park||1974||1985.23||Arunachal Pradesh||Flora and Fauna|
|6||Khangchendzonga National Park||1977||1784||Sikkim||UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|7||Guru Ghasidas (Sanjay) National Park||1981||1440.71||Chhattisgarh||Tiger|
|8||Gir Forest National Park||1965||1412||Gujarat||Asiatic lion|
|9||Sundarbans National Park||1984||1330.12||West Bengal||UNESCO World Heritage Site, Royal Bengal Tiger|
|10||Jim Corbett National Park||1936||1318.5||Uttarakhand||First national park of India|
National Parks and their famous animals
|Animal/Bird||Predominant in Sanctuary/Reserve||State|
|Wild Ass||Rann of Kutch Wild Ass Sanctuary||Gujarat|
|One horned Rhinoceros||Kaziranga National Park||Assam|
|Elephants||Periyar National Park||Kerala|
|Asiatic Lions||Gir National Park||Gujarat|
|Great Indian Bustard||Ghatigaon Wildlife Sanctuary & Desert National Park||Madhya Pradesh & Rajasthan|
|Royal Bengal Tiger||Sunderbans National Park||West Bengal|
|Olive Ridley Turtle||Gahirmatha Turtle Sanctuary||Orissa|
|Dolphins||Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary||Bhagalpur, Bihar|
|Vulture||Ramdevarabetta Vulture Sanctuary||Karnataka|
|Bear||Daroji Bear Sanctuary||Hampi, Karnataka|
|Sangai||Keibul Lamjao National Park||Loktak Lake (Bishnupur), Manipur|
|Barasingha (Swamp deer)||Kanha National Park||Madhya Pradesh|
|Siberian cranes||Keoladeo national park||Rajasthan (Bharatpur)|
|Jerdon’s Courser||Sri Lankamaleswara Wildlife Sanctuary||Andhra Pradesh|
|Gharial||National Chambal Sanctuary||U.P., Rajasthan, and M.P.|
|Grizzled Giant Squirrel||Srivilliputhur Wildlife Sanctuary||Virudhinagar & Madurai, Tamil Nadu|
|Clouded Leopard||Clouded Leopard National Park||Tripura|
|Snow Leopard||Hemis National Park||Ladakh|
|Hoolock Gibbon||Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary||Assam|
|Golden langur||Chakrashila Wildlife Sanctuary & Raimona National Park||Assam|
|Hangul (Kashmir Stag)||Dachigam Sanctuary||Jammu and Kashmir|
|Nilgiri Tahr||Eravikulam National Park||Kerala|
|Red Panda||Khangchendzonga National Park||Sikkim|