Bihar National Parks, Tiger Reserves

Bihar National Parks, Tiger Reserves, Wildlife Sanctuaries & Ramsar Sites

Valmiki National Park, Tiger Reserve, Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Valmiki National Park is a tiger reserve in the West Champaran District of Bihar.
  • It is located in the foothill ranges of Siwaliks at the Indo-Nepal borderRiver Gandak (called ‘Narayani’ in Nepal) forms its western boundary. It is the only National Park in Bihar.
  • Harha-Masan River system originates from the Valmiki National Park and forms Burhi Gandak River down south.
  • In the north, the protected areas are bordered by Nepal’s Chitwan National Park while the Indian state Uttar Pradesh bounds the sanctuary from western side.
  • Vegetation: Moist deciduous, semi-evergreen, freshwater swamps, alluvial grasslands, savannah and wetlands.
  • Major Fauna: Bengal tiger, rhinocerosIndian flying fox, black bear, sloth bear, leopard, barking deer, spotted deer, hog deer, sambar, clouded Leopard, Indian gaur.
  • ‘Tharu’, a scheduled tribe, is the dominant community.
Fauna of Valmiki National Park

Wildlife Sanctuaries of Bihar

Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary

  • It is situated south of the Ganges River, at the northern edge of Chota Nagpur Plateau and west of Santhal Pargana.
  • During the Mahabharata period, when the Pandavas were on their exile, they had also come to this forest during that time.
  • In the valley portions and at the foothills are several hot springs of which the finest are at Bhimbandh, Sita Kund and Rishi Kund.

Gautam Budha Wildlife Sanctuary

  • It is located in Gaya district of Bihar and Koderma district of Jharkhand.
  • Fauna include tigers, leopards, wolves, sloth bears, chitals, chinkaras, and many species of birds.

Kaimur Wildlife Sanctuary

  • It is located in the eastern part of the Vindhyan Scrap Lands.
  • It is the Bihar’s largest Wildlife Sanctuary and is a tiger corridor.
  • Rohtasgarh Fort and Shergarh Fort are also located in these forests.
  • The major forest types are Tropical Dry Mixed Deciduous, Dry Sal Forests, Boswellia Forests and Dry Bamboo Brakes.
  • In the valley portions there are several waterfalls of which the finest are Karkat Waterfall, Manjhar Kund, Dhua Kund, Tutla Bhawani waterfall, Geeta ghat waterfall, Kashish Waterfall, and Telhar.
  • There are several Dams and lakes, including Anupam Lake, Karamchat dam and Kohira Dam.

Kanwar Jheel Wildlife Sanctuary (BS) (Ramsar Site)

  • It is Asia’s largest freshwater oxbow lake.
  • It is larger than the Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary (Keoladeo Ghana National Park, Rajasthan).
  • Notable Avifauna: White-backed vulture (CR) & Long-billed (Indian) vulture (CR).

Udaipur Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Located in West Champaran district of Bihar.
  • It is an oxbow lake in the floodplain of the Gandaki River.

Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Wildlife Sanctuary

  • It is a 60 km stretch of the Ganges River from Sultanganj to Kahalgaon in Bhagalpur district, Bihar.
  • It is a protected area for India’s national aquatic animal – Gangetic dolphins (EN).

Barela Jheel Salim Ali Bird Wildlife Sanctuary

  • (Salim Ali-Jubba Sahni Bird Sanctuary)
  • Located in the Vaishali district of Bihar.
  • Natural home for migratory birds.

Kusheshwar Asthan Bird Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Close to the right bank of River Kosi (Sorrow of Bihar) and Kanwar Lake.
  • Kusheshwar Shiva Temple lies nearby from which the name of this place is derived.

Nagi Dam Wildlife Sanctuary & Nakti Dam Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Bird Sanctuaries in Jamui district. They are located close to each other.
  • In 2004, Nagi Dam Bird Sanctuary was declared an Important Bird Area (IBA) by BirdLife International.

Pant (Rajgir) Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Located in the ancient city of Rajgir in Nalanda district, Bihar.
  • The landscape of Pant Wildlife Sanctuary is uneven terrain enclosed by five mountains – Ratnagiri, Vipulgiri, Vaibhargiri, Songiri and Udaygiri.

Ramsar Sites of Bihar

Kanwar Taal or Kabar Taal Lake

  • The Kanwar Taal or Kabar Taal Lake or Kabartal Wetland located in Begusarai district of Bihar, India, is Asia’s largest freshwater oxbow lake.
  • It is the first Ramsar site in Bihar. It lies in the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
  • It is a residual oxbow lake, formed due to meandering of Burhi Gandak river, a tributary of Ganga, in the geological past.
  • Once a haven for migratory birds, the Kanwar lake in Bihar, Asia’s largest freshwater oxbow lake, is today a dying wetland ecosystem.
  • Kanwar Lake was declared a notified area under the Wildlife (Protection) Act of 1972.
  • Endangered Avifauna: Red-Headed Vulture (CR)White-Rumped Vulture (CR)Indian Vulture (CR) – and two waterbirds, the Baer’s Pochard (CR) & Sociable Lapwing (CR).

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