Kerala National Parks, Tiger Reserves

Kerala National Parks, Tiger Reserves, Wildlife Sanctuaries & Ramsar Sites Map
Kerala National Parks, Tiger Reserves, Wildlife Sanctuaries & Ramsar Sites Map

Anamudi Shola National Park

  • Anamudi Shola National Park is located along the Western GhatsAnamudi (2695 m), the highest peak in peninsular India, is located in this Park and Eravikulam National Park.
  • It is surrounded by Mathikettan Shola National Park, Eravikulam National Park, Pambadum Shola National Park, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, and the Kurinjimala Wildlife Sanctuary. (All are part of Munnar Wildlife Division).
  • Vegetation: tropical evergreen forests, wet montane forests, moist deciduous forests and shola forests.
    • The unique thing in the dense shola woods that houses a dense patch of stunted trees will be the luxurious presence of lichen, mosses, and climbers.
  • Major Fauna: Lion-tailed macaques, Nilgiri tahr (EN), Nilgiri marten (VU), gaur, muntjac, giant grizzled squirrel (NT), flying squirrels, Nilgiri langur (VU).
  • Threats: Tourism-related construction, invasive species, severe deforestation for plantation crops like rubber, tea.
  • Sholas are tropical montane forests in the Western Ghatsseparated by rolling grasslands in high altitudes.
  • They house a dense patch of stunted trees with the presence of lichen, mosses, and climbers.
  • The Shola patches occur only in the folds of the mountains that receive the least fog.

Eravikulam National Park

  • Eravikulam National Park is situated in the Kannan Devan Hills of the southern Western Ghats.
  • This is also the land of “Neelakurinji”, the flower that blooms once in twelve years.
  • The Anamudi peak is situated on the southern side of the Park.
  • Vegetation: High altitude grasslands and sholas.
  • Flora: The major part of the park is covered with rolling grasslands, but several patches of shola forests are also found in the upper part of the valley.
  • Fauna: The Nilgiri Tahr, Gaur, Sloth Bear, Nilgiri Langur, Tiger, Leopard, Giant Squirrel and wild dog are common.
  • Significance:
    • It is regionally important as a catchment area for both east (tributaries of River Pambar) and west (tributaries of River Periyar and Chalakkudy) flowing rivers.
    • Locally, it is important for maintaining the climate and providing drinking water to the surrounding estates and for irrigation.

Mathikettan Shola NP

  • Mathikettan Shola National Park is situated in the high ranges of southern Western Ghats in Idukki district of Kerala.
  • It is the last remnant of the original forests of the Cardamom Hill Reserve.
  • The park is located between other reserve forests like Eravikulam National Park and Pampadam Shola National Park. It shares an inter-state boundary with Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
  • The area earmarked for the construction of the Neutrino Observatory is in Theni.

Pambadum Shola National Park

  • It is a part of Palani hills of Kerala and Tami Nadu.
  • It is situated in the eastern part of Southern Western Ghats mountain range.
  • Tributaries of Pambar River flows through or near Pambadum Shola National Park.
    • The Pambar River is a tributary of the Amaravati River, which eventually joins the larger Kaveri River

Parambikulam Tiger Reserve

  • Parambikulam Tiger Reserve, which also includes the erstwhile Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, is lying in Palakkad district and Thrissur district of Kerala.
  • It is located in the Sungam range of hills between Anaimalai Hills (TN) and Nelliampathy Hills (Kerala).
  • The Western Ghats, Anamalai Sub-Cluster, including all of Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, has been declared by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee as a World Heritage Site.
  • Vegetation: Evergreen, moist deciduous, and sholas.
  • Major Fauna: Lion-tailed macaques, Nilgiri tahr, Nilgiri langurs, Nilgiri marten, small Travancore flying squirrel.
  • The Tiger Reserve is the home of four different tribes of indigenous peoples including the Kadar, Malasar, Muduvar and Mala Malasar settled in six colonies.

Periyar National Park, Tiger Reserve, ER, WLS

  • Periyar National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary (PNP) is located in the districts of Idukki and Pathanamthitta in Kerala. It is notable as an elephant reserve and a tiger reserve.
  • It forms the major watershed of two important rivers of Kerala, the Periyar and the Pamba. It is located in the Cardamom Hills of the Western Ghats.
  • It surrounds the Periyar Lake which became a reservoir in 1895 after the Mullaperiyar Dam was erected. The dam is built at the confluence of Mullayar and Periyar rivers in Kerala but is operated and maintained by Tamil Nadu.
  • It is home to many tribal communities including the Mannans and the Palians.
  • Vegetation: tropical evergreen, semi-evergreen and moist deciduous forests, montane grasslands, montane savannas, wetlands, and lake and river ecosystems.
  • Major Flora: Teak, rosewoods, sandalwoods, eucalyptus.
  • Major Fauna: Travancore flying squirrel, Nilgiri tahr, lion-tailed macaque, Salim Ali’s fruit bat, Nilgiri marten.
  • Major Avifauna: Malabar grey hornbill (endemic), Nilgiri wood pigeon, Nilgiri flycatcher.

Silent Valley National Park

  • Silent Valley National Park is located in the Nilgiri Hills in the Malappuram district, Kerala, and Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu. The park lies within the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.
  • Bhavani River (a tributary of the Kaveri River) and Kunthipuzha River (a tributary of the Bharathappuzha River) originate in the vicinity of the park. The Kadalundi River also originates in this park.
  • Vegetation: Rainforests, tropical moist evergreen forest and shola forests.
  • Major Fauna: It is home to the largest population of lion-tailed macaques (EN). Other major fauna: Malabar giant squirrel, Nilgiri tahr, Travancore flying squirrel.
  • Major Avifauna: Nilgiri wood-pigeon, Malabar grey hornbill, Nilgiri flycatcher.
  • Threats: Livestock grazing and forest fires, illegal plantations of cannabis.
  • The indigenous tribal groups that live within park boundaries include Irulas, Kurumbas, Mudugas and Kattunaikkars.

Wildlife Sanctuaries of Kerala

Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary

  • It is located on the Western Ghats and it is contiguous with the Brahmagiri Wildlife Sanctuary of Karnataka.
  • Nagarhole National Park and Tiger Reserve lies to the east of Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • The highest peak in this sanctuary is Katti Betta.
  • It is the only protected area of the West Coast Tropical Evergreen Forest of Dipterocarpus-Mesua- Palaquium type.
  • The river Cheenkani flows through this wildlife sanctuary.
  • Vegetation: Forest coast tropical evergreen and west coast semievergreen forests are predominant here.
  • Flora: The common trees in the semievergreen areas are Cinnamomum Zeylanicum, Hopea parviflora, Largestroemia lanceolata, Xyliaxylocarpa, Mallotus and Philippinensis.
  • Fauna: Deer, boar, elephant, and bison are quite common. Leopard, jungle cat and various types of squirrels are sighted here.

Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Chimmini Wildlife sanctuary is located along the Western Ghats in Chalakudy taluk of Thrissur District of KeralaIt and is contiguous with Peechi-Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary and Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary & Tiger Reserve.
  • The sanctuary consists of the watershed areas of Kurumali River and Mupliam rivers. Nestled in the sanctuary is Chimmony Dam built across the Chimmony river.

Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Idukki district and is contiguous with Eravikulam National ParkIndira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary (Anamalai Tiger Reserve & National Park) and Kodaikanal (Palani Hills).
  • It forms an integral part of the protected forests straddling the Kerala-Tamil Nadu border in the Anaimalai Hills.
  • It is under consideration for selection as UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • The Chinnar and Pambar rivers are the major perennial rivers in the Wildlife Sanctuary. The Chinnar River becomes the Amaravati River in Tamil Nadu.
  • The rare Albino gaur (Manjampatti white bison) are found only in Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary and Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary.

Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary is located in Idukki district of Kerala.
  • It is cradled by the Cheruthoni River (tributary of the Periyar River) and Periyar River.
  • It is located to the northwest of Periyar Tiger Reserve and to the southwest of Mathikettan National Park.
  • Cardamom Hills lie between Mathikettan National Park and Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • The Idukki, Cheruthoni and Kulamavu dams are located in this sanctuary.
  • Periyar River originates near Periyar Tiger Reserve, flows from Mullaperiyar Dam to the Idukki Reservoir, flows entirely through Kerala and joins the sea in the Kerala.

Kottiyoor Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Kottiyoor Wildlife Sanctuary is located in Kannur district of Kerala, in eastern hilly area of Kannur.
  • This wildlife sanctuary is located close to the Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary and the Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary in Kerala and Brahmagiri Wildlife Sanctuary in Karnataka.
  • The Bavali River, a tributary of Valapattanam River flows through the boundaries of the sanctuary.

Kurinjimala Wildlife Sanctuary

  • It protects the core habitat of the endangered Neelakurinji plant in Idukki district. Neelakurinji is a shrub that is found in the shola forests of the Western Ghats.
  • Nilgiri Hills (which literally means blue mountainsgot their name from the purplish blue flowers of Neelakurinji that blossoms only once in 12 years.
  • The Wildlife Sanctuary is contiguous to the Chinnar Wildlife SanctuaryEravikulam National Park, Anamudi National ParkPampadum Shola National Park and the proposed Palani Hills NP.

Malabar Wildlife Sanctuary

  • It is located along the Western Ghats, a biodiversity hotspot.
  • It also comes under the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve and forms a part of the Wayanad Elephant Reserve.
  • The sanctuary encompasses the watersheds of the Kuttiady River

Mangalavanam Bird Wildlife Sanctuary

  • It is situated at the Kochi city and supports many types of migratory birds and mangroves.
  • The Managalavanam is often regarded as the “green lung of Kochi”, considering its role in keeping the city’s air pollution under check. 
  • The Mangalavanam Bird Sanctuary is situated in an area that is surrounded by the backwaters of Kochi and the Arabian Sea.

Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary spread over the southeast corner of the Western Ghats.
  • It is the drainage basin of Neyyar River and Neyyar Dam.
  • It is a part of the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve.

Peechi-Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Peechi-Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary is the second oldest Wildlife Sanctuary of Kerala.
  • It consists of Palappilli-Nelliyampathi forests, including the area of Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary.

Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary

  • It is located in the Western Ghats and comes under the control of Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve.
  • The sanctuary has an artificial lake and also surrounded by the reservoir of Thenmala Dam.

Thattekad Bird Wildlife Sanctuary

  • The Thattekkad Bird Sanctuary, is located about 12 km from Kothamangalam, was the first bird sanctuary in Kerala.
  • It is an evergreen low-land forest located between the branches of the Periyar River.

Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary is an integral part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.
  • It is bounded by Nagarhole National Park and Bandipur National Park (Karnataka) and Mudumalai National Park.
  • It is a major elephant and tiger corridor.
  • Kabini river (a tributary of the Cauvery river) flows through the sanctuary.

Chulannur Peafowl Wildlife Sanctuary

  • It is located in the Pal Gap/ Palghat Gap/Palakkad Gap in Palakkad district, Kerala.
  • As of 2023, it is the only peafowl sanctuary in Kerala.

Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary

  • The Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary is in Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala.
  • It is located to the north of Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary and west of Agasthyamalai.
  • The sanctuary is named after the Peppara Dam, which forms a reservoir within the sanctuary.
  • It consists of the catchment area of the Karamana River, which originates from Chemmunjimottai, the tallest hill within the sanctuary.

Ramsar Sites of Kerala

Ashtamudi Wetland

  • It is a natural backwater in the Kollam district. National Waterway 3 passes through it. It is the second-largest estuarine ecosystem in Kerala. 
  • It forms an estuary with the sea at Neendakara (a famous fishing harbour in Kerala). River Kallada and Pallichal drain into it.

Sasthamkotta Lake

  • It is the largest freshwater lake in Kerala. River Kallada had a unique replenishing system through a bar of paddy fields. The replenishing mechanism is now being destroyed. 
  • The water contains no common salts & supports no water plants. A larva called cavaborus eliminates bacteria in water, thus contributing to its exceptional purity.

Vembanad-Kol Wetland

  • It is the largest brackish lake of Kerala, spanning across Alappuzha, Kottayam, and Ernakulam districts. 
  • It is the second-largest Ramsar Site in India after Sundarbans. It is also the longest lake in India
  • It is below sea level and is famous for paddy fields that are below sea level.

Wildlife Sanctuaries of Lakshadweep

Pitti (Bird Island) Wildlife Sanctuary

  • It is an uninhabited coral islet in Lakshadweep. This sanctuary is situated on Pitti Island and serves as a critical habitat and nesting place for various seabird species.
  • It is located about 24 km to the north of Kavaratti.

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