UPSC Syllabus: Complete IAS Syllabus with Micro Topic Analysis – 2020

UPSC Syllabus

Welcome to Lotus Arise! Here, you will find the complete UPSC IAS syllabus for the Civil Services Examination conducted by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC). The Civil Services Examination is widely considered as one of the toughest and the most prestigious examinations conducted in India.

To understand the UPSC exam, one needs to understand the UPSC syllabus. This helps to eliminate wasteful efforts like reading unnecessary topics leading to a loss of time and keeps one strictly aligned to the expectations of the UPSC from day one.

The civil service exam is conducted by UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) every year to recruit officers for various government posts.

UPSC is one of the most challenging examinations in our country because of its unpredictable nature.

There are three stages of this examination:

  • Prelims
  • Mains
  • Interview

UPSC Prelims Syllabus


As we have discussed above that Prelims is the first stage of the UPSC Exam. UPSC Prelims comprises of two objective type papers (General Studies I and CSAT) for a total of 400 marks. Both papers are usually held on the same day in two sessions. The Preliminary Examination of Union Public Service Commission for Civil Services Examination is popularly called CSAT or Civil Services Aptitude Test. The CSAT is actually the second paper of preliminary General Studies of the IAS syllabus introduced in 2011. The CSAT was introduced to end the use of a scaling system for varying subjects in the General Studies paper of the IAS mains examination or whole as the IAS syllabus.

The benefit of introducing aptitude tests in the UPSC syllabus is that it assesses your logical reasoning and thinking performance. It is based on multiple-choice questions answered in exam conditions.

In 2013, some changes are made in the format of ias syllabus. It’s for the first time the Indian Forest Service (IFS) aspirants were combined with the Civil Services aspirants and are made to take the preliminary examination. Those Indian Forest Service aspirants who may eventually clear the first stage of the exam, they have to write the separate exam in place of ias mains examination for their Mains Indian Forest Service examination.

There are several other changes in the pattern of ias Mains examination from 2013. Now there are four compulsory papers of General Studies of ias mains examination and only one optional subject instead of two, one compulsory essay paper is also there. Besides, English and one language paper are of only qualifying nature.

Giving an all-round approach to the ias syllabus is the key to success for both preliminary and ias mains examination.

PaperSubjectsTotal MarksDuration
IGeneral Studies (GS)2002 hours
IICSAT2002 hours

Syllabus for GS Paper (Prelims Paper I)

  • Current events of national and international importance.
  • History of India and Indian National Movement.
  • Indian and World Geography-Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World.
  • Indian Polity and Governance – Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.
  • Economic and Social Development – Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector initiatives, etc.
  • General issues on Environmental Ecology, Biodiversity, and Climate Change – that do not require subject specialization General Science

Syllabus for CSAT Paper (Prelims Paper-II)

  • Comprehension
  • Interpersonal skills including communication skills
  • Logical reasoning and analytical ability
  • Decision-making and problem solving
  • General mental ability
  • Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude, etc.) (Class X level), Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency, etc. – Class X level)

UPSC Mains Syllabus


  • The Mains examination constitutes the 2nd phase of the Civil Services Examination. Only after successfully qualifying in the prelims exam would the candidates be allowed to write the IAS Mains.
  • The Mains exam tests the candidate’s academic talent in depth and his/her ability to present his/her understanding according to the requirements of the question in a time-bound manner.
  • The UPSC Mains exam consists of 9 papers, out of which two are qualifying papers of 300 marks each.
  • The two qualifying papers are:
    • Any Indian Language
    • English Language Paper

The papers on Essay, General Studies and Optional Subject of only such candidates who attain 25% marks in both the language papers as a minimum qualifying standard in these qualifying papers, will be taken cognizance of, for evaluation.

In case a candidate does not qualify in these language papers, then the marks obtained by such candidates will not be considered or counted.

PaperSubjectMarks
Paper-IEssay (can be written in the medium of the candidate’s choice)250
Paper-IIGeneral Studies – I (Indian Heritage & Culture, History & Geography of the World & Society)250
Paper-IIIGeneral Studies – II (Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice & International Relations)250
Paper–IVGeneral Studies – III (Technology, Economic Development, Biodiversity, Security & Disaster Management)250
Paper–VGeneral Studies – IV (Ethics, Integrity & Aptitude)250
Paper–VIOptional Subject – Paper I250
Paper–VIIOptional Subject – Paper II250
 Booklist For UPSC IAS

UPSC Mains General Studies Paper-1 Syllabus

Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society:

  • Indian culture covers the salient features of Literature, Art Forms, and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
  • Modern Indian history includes significant events, personalities, issues during the middle of the eighteenth century until the present
  • Various stages and important contributors and contributions from different parts of the country in ‘The Freedom Struggle’
  • Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country
  • History of the world includes events, forms and effect on the society from 18th century like world wars, the industrial revolution, colonization, redrawal of national boundaries, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism, etc
  • Salient aspects of Diversity of India and Indian Society
  • Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty, and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and remedies
  • Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism
  • Distribution of key natural resources across the world including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent; factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world including India
  • Effects of globalization on Indian society
  • Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone, etc., geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes
  • Salient features of the world’s physical geography

UPSC Mains General Studies Paper-2 Syllabus

Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations:

  • Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions, and basic structure
  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues, and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein
  • Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries
  • Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions
  • Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, the conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these
  • Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions, and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies
  • Structure, organization, and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity
  • Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act
  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation
  • Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies
  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions, and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections
  • Health, Education, Human Resources
  • Development processes and the development industry the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders
  • Issues relating to the development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to
  • Important aspects of governance, transparency, and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures
  • Issues relating to poverty and hunger
  • Role of civil services in a democracy
  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests
  • India and its neighborhood- relations
  • Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate
  • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora

UPSC Mains General Studies Paper-3 Syllabus

Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security, and Disaster Management:

  • Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development, and employment.
  • Development, Bio diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management.
  • Government Budgeting.
  • Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
  • Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers
  • Economics of animal-rearing.
  • Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
  • Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions
  • Land reforms in India.
  • Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways, etc.
  • Investment models.
  • Science and technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology;
  • Indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
  • Conservation, environmental pollution, and degradation, environmental impact assessment
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.
  • Disaster and disaster management.
  • Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
  • Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
  • Challenges to internal security through communication networks, the role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cybersecurity; money-laundering and its prevention
  • Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate
  • Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism

UPSC Mains General Studies Paper-4 Syllabus

Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude: This paper includes questions to check the candidate’s attitude and approach to issues relating to integrity, probity in public life and his/her problem-solving approach to various issues and conflicts faced by him/her while dealing with society. Questions may utilize the case study approach to determine these aspects and covers area:

  • Ethics and Human Interface- Essence, determinants, and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships
  • Human Values- lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; the role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values
  • Attitude- content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behavior; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion
  • Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections
  • Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance
  • Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and the world
  • Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration- Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations, and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance
  • Probity in Governance- Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information; sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption
  • Case Studies on the above issues

IAS Interview/UPSC Personality Test (275 Marks)

  • Candidates who qualify the UPSC Mains Exam will be called for the ‘Personality Test/Interview’. These candidates will be interviewed by a Board appointed by the UPSC.
  • The objective of the interview is to assess the personal suitability of the candidate for a career in the civil services by a board of competent and unbiased observers.
  • The interview is more of a purposive conversation intended to explore the mental qualities and analytical ability of the candidate.
  • The Interview test will be of 275 marks and the total marks for written examination is 1750. This sums up to a Grand Total of 2025 Marks based on which the final merit list will be prepared.


UPSC Syllabus Mains (GS Paper-1 Micro Topics)

1. Modern India

  • Before European Penetration in India
    • Later Mughals
    • The disintegration of the Mughal Empire
    • Rise of Regional States
      • Bengal
      • Hyderabad and Carnatic
      • Awadh
      • Mysore
      • Kerala
      • The Sikhs
      • Rajput states and Jats
      • Marathas
    • Rise and fall of Marathas
    • Socio and Economic condition of  people in 18th Century
    • The cultural life of people in 18th Century
    • Scientific outlook in 18th Century
  • Beginning of European Penetration in India
    • Trade between India and Europe
    • Portuguese Domination
    • Spice trade of Dutch
    • British trade expansion in India and its effect on India from 1600-1744
    • Anglo-French Struggle and Subversion of Indian political power
  • Expansion of the British Empire in India 1756-1818
    • British expansion in Bengal
    • Importance of the Battle of Plassey
    • The clash between Mir Qasim and East India Company
    • A dual system of administration in Bengal
    • Wars under Warren Hastings and Cornwallis
    • Expansion under Lord Wellesley
    • Subsidiary Alliance policy of Wellesley
    • Expansion under Cornwallis
    • Overpowering of Maratha Confederacy
  • Consolidation under British Rule, 1818-1857
    • Conquest of Sind
    • Conquest of Punjab
    • The policy of Annexation of Dalhousie
  • Structure of British Rule in India
    • End of Dual Government and Direct Administration of Bengal (From 1772)
    • Relations between East India Company and the British state between 1765-1833
    • Regulating Act of 1773 and Pitts India Act
    • Charter Act of 1813 and 1833
  • British Economic Policy in India from 1757-1857
    • Commercial Policy of British from 1757-1857
    • Effect of Battle of Plassey on Indian Trade
    • Effect of the Industrial Revolution on Economic Relations with India
    • Factors that Make Britain Favorable for the Industrial Revolution
    • Drain of Wealth
    • Development of Means of Transport and communication and industries
    • Land Revenue Policy of British (Permanent, Ryotwari, Mahalwari)
    • Effect of Land Revenue Policy on Agrarian relations in India
  • Administrative Policy of British
    • Civil Service in India
    • Role of Army
    • Police
    • Judicial organization during British Rule
    • Introduction of Rule of Law
    • Equality Before Law
  • Social and Cultural Policy of British
    • Modern Thoughts that influenced British Policies in India
    • Conservatives and Radicals
    • A policy of partial modernization
    • Humanitarian Measures (Abolition of Sati etc)
    • The spread of modern education
  • Social and Religious Reforms in the 19th Century
    • Social and Religious reforms in the 19th Century
    • Role of Raja Ram Mohan Roy in social and religious regeneration
    • The radical trend between 1820 & 1830 (Derozio)
    • Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar (Girl education, child marriage, widow remarriage, and caste hierarchy)
    • Why the impact of western Ideas felt more in Bengal than in Western India
    • Fight Against Caste System, Untouchability and Widow remarriage, Child marriage
    • Parsi Reforms
    • Sikh Reforms
    • Role of women
    • The state of Education in India during the 19th Century
  • Revolt of 1857
    • Reasons for the revolt of 1857
    • Participation in Revolt
    • Spread of Revolt
    • Response of British
    • Impact of Revolt of 1857
    • Factors responsible for the failure of Revolt of 1857
  • Administrative Changes Post Revolt of 1857
    • Government of India Act of 1858
    • Indian Council Act of 1861
    • Role of Mayo, Lytton, and Ripon
    • Promotion of Local bodies and role of Ripon
    • Changes in the Army
    • Changed Relationship with the Princely States
    • The reactionary policy of British
    • Labor Legislations
  • Economic Impact of British Rule
    • The ruin of Traditional Economy
    • Impoverishment of peasantry
    • The ruin of old zamindars
    • Rise of new Landlordism
    • Deterioration of Agriculture
    • Development of modern industries
    • Rise of new social class in India
    • Poverty and Famines
    • The drain of Wealth theory
  • Nationalist Movement (1858-1905)
    • Factors responsible for Rising of Nationalism
    • Predecessors of Indian National Congress
    • Indian National Congress
    • Constitutional Reforms by Moderates
    • Economic Reforms by Moderates
    • Administrative and other reforms by Moderates
    • Defense of Civil rights
    • Method of Constitutional agitation of Moderates
    • British Response
    • Evaluation of the role of moderates
  • Social and Religious Reform after 1858
    • Factors responsible for Religious reform of 19th Century
    • Religious reforms in Maharashtra
    • Swami Dayanand and AryaSamaj
    • Raja Ram Mohan Roy
    • Theosophical society
    • Swami Vivekanand
    • Aligarh School of Thought
    • Reform among Parsis
    • Limitations of the religious reform movement
    • The movement to improve the position of Women
    • Struggle Against Caste
    • Effect of National Awakening on social reforms
    • Social legislations in the 19th and 20th century
  • Nationalist Movement (1905-1918)
    • Growth of militant Nationalism
    • How militant nationalists different from moderates
    • Swadeshi and Boycott Movement and participation from different sections
    • Women Participation before Gandhi
    • Growth of Revolutionary Terrorism
    • Indian National Congress between 1905-1914
    • Morley Minto Reforms
    • Muslim league and growth of communalism
    • British used Muslim league to fight rising nationalism
    • Nationalist and World War I
    • Home rule league movement
    • Revolutionary Organization like the Ghadar Party
    • Lucknow session of 1916
  • Struggle for Swaraj
    • Post world war scenario favorable for Nationalism
    • Impact of the Russian Revolution on National Movement
    • Montague Chelmsford reforms
    • Rowlatt Act
    • The arrival of Mahatma Gandhi and his ideas
    • Champaran Satyagraha, Ahmedabad Mill strike
    • Satyagraha against Rowlatt Act
    • Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
    • Khilafat movement and Non-cooperation movement
    • Impact of ChauriChaura Incident
    • Role of Swarajists
    • State peoples conference movements
    • Rise of Socialism within congress
    • Peasant, Tribal and workers agitation
    • Socialist turn to Revolutionary terrorism
    • The response of the British to revolutionary terrorism
    • Boycott of Simon Commission
    • Nehru Report
    • Significance of PoornaSwaraj Resolution
    • Dandi March
    • Program of CDM (1930-34) and the British response
    • First Round table conference
    • Gandhi-Irwin pact and second RTC
    • The second phase of CDM
    • Women Participation after coming of Mahatma Gandhi
    • Communal Award
    • Poona Pact and Mahatma Gandhi fast unto death
    • Mahatma Gandhi and BR Ambedkar approach to caste and untouchability
    • Third RTC
  • Nationalist Politics (1935-1939)
    • Government of India Act, 1935
    • Formation of Congress Ministries
    • Growth of Socialist Ideas
    • Congress and International Affairs
  • Towards Independence
    • National Movement in the Princely States
    • Growth of Communalism
    • National movement and World War II
    • August Offer, 1940
    • Individual civil disobedience movement (1940-41)
    • Cripps Mission and Reasons for Failure
    • Quit India Movement and British Response
    • Women participation in the end stages of freedom struggle
    • Azad Hind Fauj and SC Bose
    • INA Trials
    • Wavell Plan and Shimla Conference
    • 1945-46 elections and the communal divide
    • RIN (Royal Indian Navy Mutiny)
    • Labour and peasant Unrest all over Country
    • Reasons Behind British Support for India’s demand for freedom
    • Cabinet Mission
    • Towards Partition and independence
    • Rise of Muslim communalism and partition of India
    • The Indian independence Act July 1947
    • Role of Various Leaders
    • Factors leading to Partition
    • Why congress accepted the partition of India

2. Post-Independence Consolidation and Re-organization

  • Challenges before India after Independence
    • Communal Riots and Regions most affected
    • Partition and then Independence: Punjab, Bengal and Assam, Sindh
    • Radcliff Commission and challenges before boundary commission
    • Radcliff Commission and its composition
    • Drawbacks of Commission
    • Division of sources
    • Finances
    • Defence personnel and equipment
    • Civil government
    • Assassination of Gandhi
    • Resettlement and Rehabilitation of Refugees
    • Shift to Constitutional Democracy
  • The Indian States
    • Policy of Equal Federation (1935-1947)
    • Plan of consolidation
    • Integration of Princely States: Junagadh, Kashmir and Hyderabad
    • Aftermath of Integration
    • Goa and Pondicherry
    • Tribal Integration
    • Roots of India Tribal Policy
    • Reasons for dismal performance of Tribal Policy
    • Positive Development happened due to state’s Initiative since 1947
    • Issue of language
    • The Official Language
    • Features of Official Language Act
  • Framing of the Constitution of India
    • Evolution of the Constitution and main provisions
    • Steps to the Constitution
    • Constitutional Developments
    • The Indian Constitution: Main Provisions
    • The Constituent Assembly
    • Formation of the Constituent Assembly
    • Compulsions and Issues in front of Assembly
  • From Colony to Democracy
    • Challenge of building democracy
    • Challenges before ECI and conduction of the first general election
    • Starting of one party dominance
    • Dominance of Congress System
    • Nature of Congress Dominance
    • 1967 elections
    • Split in the Congress
    • Emergence of Opposition Parties
    • Role of opposition parties
    • Various opposition parties
  • Economic Consolidation
    • Economic Development and Planning
    • Ideas of Development
    • Planning
    • Formation of Planning Commission
    • First five year plan
    • Second five year plan
    • Achievements of Plans from 1947 to 1965
    • Key controversies regarding 5 year plans
    • Green Revolution
    • Prevailing Conditions before the introduction of the Green Revolution
    • Initiatives prior to Green Revolution to boost Agriculture
    • Government’s other positive initiative during the Green Revolution Period
    • Positive and negative impact of Green Revolution
    • Operation Flood and Cooperatives
    • Formation of Amul
    • Starting and impact of Operation Flood
    • Limitations of Co-operativization
    • Development of land reforms in India between 1947 and early 1960s
    • Abolition of intermediaries
    • Tenancy reforms
    • Ceiling on land holdings
    • Bhoodan Movement
    • Aims and advantages of Bhoodan movement
  • India’s External Relations
    • Evolution of India’s Foreign Policy
    • Strategic Issues
    • Features of Indian Foreign Policy
    • Emergence of NAM and its Summits
    • Organizational structure & membership
    • India and its neighbours
    • India and China
    • India and Pakistan (Indo-Pak War, Kargil War, Shimla Agreement,
      Tashkent Declaration and Agra Summit)
    • India and Bangladesh (Creation of Bangladesh)
    • India and Sri Lanka
    • India with Nepal and Bhutan
    • India’s relations with USA and USSR during cold war
    • Analysis of Nehruvian Foreign Policy
  • The Crisis of Democratic Order
    • The JP movement and Emergency 1975-77: Testing of Indian democracy tested
    • Background to emergency (Economic context, Gujarat and Bihar movements, Conflict with Judiciary)
    • Declaration of emergency (Crisis and Response)
    • Controversies regarding emergency
    • Lessons from emergency
    • Politics after Emergency (LS elections 1977 and Janata Party)
    • The Opposition: Initial years of BJP
    • The Naxalite Movement
    • Communalism
    • Secularism and democracy
    • Ayodhya dispute: Demolition and after
    • Communalism and use of state power
    • Revival and growth of communalism
    • Anti-muslim riots in Gujarat
    • The Punjab Crisis
    • Operation Blue Star
    • Demand of Khalistan
    • Basis of Regionalism: Politics in the states
    • Roots of tension
    • Challenges of Regionalism
    • Tamil Nadu (Dravidian Movement), Andhra Pradesh, Assam, West Bengal and J&K (external and internal disputes)
    • Secessionist movement in North-Eastern states
    • Accommodation and National Integration
  • Popular Movements
    • Nature of Popular Movements
    • Environment Movements
    • Chipko Movement
    • Narmada Bachao Andalon (Sardar Sarovar Project, Debates, and struggles)
    • Party based Movement and Non-party based movements
    • Caste, Untouchability, Anti-caste politics and strategies
    • Issues of Dalit
    • Dalit panthers: Origin and their activities
    • Agrarian Struggles
    • Bharatiya Kisan Union: Growth and its characteristics
    • National Fish Worker’s Forum
    • Anti-Arrack Movement: Origin and its linkage
    • Indian Women since Independence
    • Lesson from popular movements
  • Recent Developments in Indian Politics
    • Context of the 1990s
    • Era of Coalition
    • Decline of Congress
    • Alliance politics
    • Political Rise of other Backward Classes
    • Mandal Implemented: The Mandal Commission
    • Political fallouts
    • NEP-1991, LPG policy, Tax reforms, Privatisation, Globalisation and ICT
    • Nuclear policy
    • Emergence of new consensus
    • LS Elections 2004
    • Terrorist troubles and relations with Pakistan

CONTEMPORARY ISSUES

  • Polity
    • Reorganisation of States
    • Emergency in India
    • Linguistic Regionalism in India.
    • Lok Sabha Elections 2014 and 2018.
  • Economy
    • Agriculture since 12th five-year plan
    • Industry since 12th five-year plan
    • New Economic Policies and its Impact
  • Social Issues Related to Vulnerable Section
    • Tribal Issue and Policy Consolidation
    • Issue of Women and Evolution of Women Movement
    • Agrarian Struggles
    • The problem of Caste and Social Consolidation
    • Communalism Secularism and Social Consolidation
    • Regionalism Issues in India
    • Issue of Linguistic Minorities
    • Environmental Movements

3. Indian Culture

  • Culture and Heritage of India
    • Aims and objectives of performing arts and their development through various stages.
    • The utility of performing arts during the ancient and the medieval period.
    • Appreciate the contribution of classical dances, folk music as well as folk dances in Indian culture and Challenges faced by performing arts.
    • Development of drama through various phases in India and recognize the contribution of folk theatre.
    • Examine the importance of the three art forms in the development of human personality.
    • Religious and secular Art in India.
  • Music
    • Evolution of Indian Music
    • Contribution of Some personalities: Amir Khusro, Mohammad Shah
    • Hindustani Music evolution, features, and impact.
    • Carnatic Music evolution, features, and impact
    • Hindustani and Carnatic music differences and similarities
    • Regional music and its impact
    • Modern Music
  • Dance
    • Tracing Evolution of Dance (Rig Veda, Harappa, Nataraja)
    • Classical Dances of India, their evolution and Theme
    • Well known classical dancers of India.
    • Themes in Indian folk dances
  • Drama
    • Introduction ( Natyashastra)
    • Evolution of Drama in India
    • Various texts relating to Drama period wise (ex Mahabhasya, mrichhakatika)
    • Famous Modern Dramas and Dramatists.
  • Languages & Literature
    • Vedic Literature
    • Tamil language and Sangam Literature
    • Classical languages: Evolution & impact on society
    • Trends in Medieval Literature
    • Modern Indian Literature
  • Architecture in India
    • Architectural Style of Harappan Civilisation
    • Influence of Buddhism and Jainism on Indian architecture
    • Impact of Persian and Greek invasion on Indian culture
    • Mauryan Architecture (322-182 BC)
    • Post Mauryan Architecture
    • Gandhara and Mathura school of Art
    • Cultural development during the Gupta Age
    • Temple Architecture and Sculptures
    • Pallavas as great temple builders
    • The emergence of Nalanda as a center of learning
    • Medieval Period architecture
      • Delhi Sultanate
      • Regional Kingdoms ( Mandu, Jaunpuretc)
      • Vijaynagara Architecture
      • Mughal Architecture
    • Indo Islamic Architecture
    • Colonial Architecture
    • The utility of Architectural structures today and in Past
    • Conservation and Preservation of Architectural Structures
    • Spread of Indian Culture to Southeast Asia
  • Bronze Sculptures in India
    • Harappan “Dancing Girl”
    • Jain Tirthankaras Bronze Images
    • Buddha bronze Images (ex Guptas and Vakatakas)
    • Pala school of Art (Bronze images, Manuscripts)
    • Pallava Bronze Images
    • Chola Bronzes
    • Nataraja
  • Paintings in India
    • Prehistoric Rock Paintings
    • Ancient Period
      • Murals Paintings
      • Bagh Caves
      • Sittanavasal Paintings
      • Armamalai caves
    • Medieval Period
      • Pala school of miniature paintings
      • Mughal miniature paintings (synthesis of Indian and Persian style)
      • Role of Akbar and his successors
      • Development of Pahari, Rajput and Deccan Paintings
      • The theme of paintings in the Medieval period
    • Modern Period
      • Bengal school of Art
      • Renaissance or revivalist painting
      • Madras School of Art
    • Decorative Art
      • Madhubani
      • Kalamkari
      • Kalighat
      • Warli
      • Pattachitra
      • The theme of decorative paintings in India
    • Theatre Forms of India
      • Significance of Traditional folk theatre in India
      • Different forms of traditional folk theatre in India
      • Sanskrit theatre in India
      • Challenges faced by the theatre in India
    • Puppet forms in India
      • Themes of puppetry in India
      • Forms of Puppetry
    • Religious Philosophies
      • Buddhism and its impact
      • Jainism and its impact
      • Sufism and its impact
      • Vedanta Philosophy
    • Bhakti Traditions

4. World History

  • Industrial Revolution
    • Decline of feudalism
    • Beginning of Renaissance
    • Pre-industrial Europe
    • Factors that led to the industrial revolution and its Impact
  • French Revolution
    • Causes of the revolution in France
    • France under Napoleon
    • Impact and Significance of revolution
  • Nationalism in Europe
    • Rise of the nation-state system
    • Unification of Italy and Germany
  • Colonialism and Imperialism
    • Colonialism and its Analysis
    • The age of Imperialism (1870-1914)
    • Imperialism in Asia
  • Emergence of USA
    • Foundation of American Colonies
    • The Independence of the USA
    • The American Revolutionary War and its impact
    • Political Effects of the Revolution
    • How did the American Revolution influence the French Revolution?
  • World War-I
    • Causes and Course of the war
    • Consequences of World War I
    • The aftermath of World War I
    • League of Nations
  • Russian Revolution
    • Major events in pre-revolution Russia
    • Causes and Course of revolution
    • Consequences and Aftermath of the war
    • Post-Lenin Russia
  • Inter-War Years (1919 To 1939)
    • The Great Depression- an economic perspective
    • Rise of Fascism in Italy & Nazism in Germany
    • Soviet Union (USSR)
  • World War- II
    • Causes &Course of the war
    • Aftermath &Analysis of the war
    • Decolonization Phase
  • Development in the Middle East
    • Democratic reforms in the Middle East
    • Arab nationalism
    • Israel and Palestine
  • Cold War Era
    • Impact in India
      • Indian Policy
  • Post-Cold-War World
    • Global issues since 1991
    • Integration of Europe
    • Rise of global Islamic terrorism
    • Rise of China
  • Communism, Socialism, and Capitalism
    • Capitalism (concept, types, and example)
    • Communism (concept, types, example)
      • The relevance of capitalism in the present era

5. Physical Geography (World and India)

  • General Geography
    • Universe
    • Earth Evolution& Basics
  • Geomorphology
    • Earth’s Interior
      • Sources of Information about the Interior
      • Structure of the Earth’s Interior
      • Mechanical and Chemical categorization of the internal structure
    • Geology and Rock System
      • Minerals
      • Major Elements of the Earth’s Crust
      • Rocks
      • Rocks & landforms
      • Rocks & Soils
    • Geomorphic Processes
      • Endogenic Forces
      • Exogenic Forces
    • Earthquakes and Volcanism
    • Distribution of Continents & Oceans
      • Continental Drift Theory
      • Convectional Current Theory
      • Mapping of the Ocean Floor
      • Sea Floor Spreading
      • Plate Tectonics
      • Isostasy
    • Landforms and their evolution
      • Causes of landform development
      • Geomorphic Agents and Landforms
      • Ground Water (Karst Topography)
      • Glaciers
      • Waves and Currents
      • Winds
    • Landforms across the world
      • Rivers and lakes
      • Mountain and Peaks
      • Plateaus
  • Oceanography
    • Hydrosphere
      • Water on the Surface of the Earth
      • Hydrological Cycle
    • Submarine Relief Features
      • Relief of the Ocean floor
      • Divisions of the ocean floor
      • Minor relief features
    • Temperature and Salinity
      • The temperature of the Ocean Wate
      • Factors affecting Temperature distribution
      • Horizontal and Vertical Distribution
    • The salinity of the Ocean Water
      • Factors affecting salinity
      • Horizontals distribution of salinity
      • Vertical Distribution of salinity
      • The density of Ocean Waters
    • Movements of Ocean Water
      • Factors influencing Movement
      • Waves
      • Tides
      • Ocean Currents
    • Marine Resources
    • Ocean Deposits and Corals
  • Climatology
    • Atmosphere
    • Solar Radiation, Heat Balance and Temperature
    • Atmospheric Circulation and Weather Systems
      • Atmospheric Pressure
      • Vertical variation of pressure
      • Horizontal distribution of pressure
      • World Distribution of Sea Level Pressure
      • Factors affecting the velocity and direction of the Wind
      • General Circulation of the Atmosphere – Pattern of Planetary Winds
      • Latitudinal Variation of Atmospheric Heating
      • The emergence of Pressure Belts
      • Hadley Cell, Ferrel Cell, Polar Cell
      • Seasonal Wind
      • Local Wind
      • Land and Sea Breezes
      • Mountain and Valley Winds
      • Air Mass, Fronts, Cyclones and Jet Stream
    • Water in the Atmosphere
      • Water Vapour
      • Humidity – Absolute and Relative
      • Saturation – Dew Point
      • Evaporation and Condensation
        • Dew
        • Frost
        • Fog & Mist
        • Clouds
      • Precipitation
      • Climatic Zones of the World
        • World Climate
        • Koeppen’s Scheme of Classification of Climate
        • Climatic Zones of World
    • Bio-Geography
      • Soil & Its Characteristics
      • Vegetation resources
        • Types of natural vegetation
        • Forests
        • Grasslands
        • Desert vegetation
        • Tundra Vegetation
        • Deforestation
        • Conservation of forests
        • Reforestation
        • Afforestation
        • Forestry
    • Physical Geography of India
      • Physiography of India
        • Location
        • Geopolitical Significance of India
        • Geological Divisions
      • Drainage System
      • Climate
        • Factors influencing the climate of India
        • Monsoon
        • Mechanism of the Monsoon
        • EL NINO and LA NINA & their impact
        • The rhythm of Seasons
        • Climatic Regions of India
      • Soils in India
        • Classification of Soils
        • Soil textures
        • Issue of Soil degradation & Soil Erosion
        • Soil Conservation
      • Natural Vegetation
        • Types of Forests in India
        • Forest Cover in India
        • Forest Conservation
        • Forest Problems in India
    • Environmental Issues
      • Floods and Droughts
      • Forest fires
      • Deforestation
      • Desertification
      • Pollution
      • Climate Change and Global Warming

6. Economic and Human Geography

  • Basics of Economic Geography
    • Definition, Development, and scope of Economic Geograph
    • Type of Economic Activities
      • Primary Activities
      • Secondary Activities
      • Tertiary, Quaternary and Quinary Activities
    • Recent Themes and Concepts in Economic Geography
    • Agglomeration Economies
    • Neo-liberalism
    • Rise of macro-regional Economic block
    • Ethnicity in Economic Geography
    • Concept of the digital divide
  • Resource
    • Land Resource
      • Land-use Pattern and changes
      • Problems of Land Resources:
        • Land Degradation: Causes and Impact
        • Concept of Land Degradation Neutrality
      • Land Use Planning and Policy
    • Water Resources
    • Mineral Resources
    • Energy resources
    • Recent Debates on Resources
      • Geopolitics of Natural Resources
      • Globalization and Unsustainable exploitation of natural resources
      • Depletion of natural resources versus Economic Growth
      • Changing Pattern of Land Use and Causes
      • Water Crisis: Causes, Conflicts and Resolution
      • Energy Crisis
      • Challenges and constraints faced by coal sector
      • Challenges in Hydropower sector
      • Renewable Energy: way toward sustainability
      • Energy Security: Energy Policy and strategy in India
  • Agriculture
    • Agriculture Basic Terminologies
      • Cropping pattern
      • Agriculture Productivity
      • Agriculture Intensity
      • Land capability
    • Location of agriculture
    • World Agriculture Typologies
    • Salient features of Indian Agriculture
    • Problems of Indian Agriculture
    • Factor Affecting Agriculture
      • Geographical factors
      • Institutional factors
      • Technological factors
    • Major Crops and conditions for growth
    • Regionalization of Agriculture
    • Various Revolutions in Agriculture Sector
      • Green Revolution
      • White Revolution
      • Operation Flood
      • Blue Revolution
    • Agricultural Policies and Initiatives
      • Minimum Support Price: Benefits and Challenges
      • Agriculture Market Produce Committees: Issues
      • National Agriculture Market (NAM)
      • Agricultural Produce and Livestock Marketing (Promotion and Facilitating) Act (APLM), 2017
      • National Livestock Mission
      • National Programme for Bovine Breeding and Dairy Development (NPBBD)
      • Rashtriya Gokul Mission
      • Agriculture Export Policy, 2018
      • Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN)
      • Pradhan Mantri Annadataaay Sanrakshan Abhiyan (Pm-Aasha)
      • Operation Greens
      • Dairy Processing & Infrastructure Development Fund (DIDF)
      • Fisheries and Aquaculture Infrastructure Development Fund (FIDF)
      • Agriculture Census
    • Food Security
      • Nature of Food Insecurity: Duration, Severity and types
      • Trend and Pattern in Food Insecurity
      • Causes and Geography of famine
      • Key Dimension of food security
      • Efforts and Remedies to ensure food security
    • Agricultural in Discussion
      • Controversy over GM Crops: Benefits and Issues
      • Impact of climate Change on Agriculture
      • Evergreen Green Revolution for Sustainable Livelihood
      • Rainbow Revolution
      • Blue Revolution: Impact on Rural Economy
      • Climate Smart Agriculture
      • Need of Agriculture Diversification
      • Mixed farming: Hedging Agriculture Risks
      • Problems and Prospects of dry-zone agriculture
      • Plantation Agriculture: Issues involved
      • Challenges of increasing Agriculture Productivity and Production
      • New ‘White Revolution’: Need, Scope and Challenges
      • Contract Farming: Benefits and Challenges
      • Role of infrastructural and institutional factors in the recent transformation of Indian agriculture
      • Impact of advanced agricultural technologies on the Environment
      • Soil Health Card scheme and rationalization of fertilizer subsidies
      • Food Security: India’s Vulnerability and way-out
  • Industry
    • Classification of Industries
    • Factors affecting location of Industries
      • Weber’s Model of Industrial Location
      • Losch theory of Profit Maximization
    • Various Industries: Location, Prospects and Challenges
      • Iron and Steel Industry
      • Textile Industry
      • Jute Industry
      • Auto Mobile Industry
      • Fertilizer Industry
      • Agro-based Industries
      • Other Industries
    • Industrial Regions and its Characteristics
    • Major Industrial Regions of the World
    • Industrial Regions of India
    • Industrial Policies and Development
      • A Scheme for Promotion of Innovation, Rural Industry and Entrepreneurship
      • Scheme of Fund for Regeneration of Traditional Industries
      • Stand Up India
      • Fourth Industrial Revolution
      • Role of Industrial development in minimizing regional inequalities
      • Problems of Industrial regions
      • Factors behind the growth and present location pattern of automobile industry in India
      • Pharmaceutical industry: Locational pattern and reasons
      • Sugar industry: Problems and challenges of the current pattern
      • Food Processing Industry: Untapped Potential
      • Agro based Industries: Problems and Prospects
      • Impact of agro-based industries on cropping pattern
      • Tourism: Prospects and Impact on Environment
  • Transport and Communication
    • Land Transport
      • Roads
      • Railways
      • Pipelines
    • Water Transport
      • Inland: National Waterways
      • Seaways and Oceanic Route
    • Air Transport
      • National Airways
        • National Civil Aviation Policy
        • Regional Connectivity Scheme (UDAN)
      • International Airways
    • Communications
      • Communication Infrastructure
      • National Telecom Policy
    • Major Issues in Transport and Communication
    • Trade
    • World Trade Pattern
    • Basis of Overseas Trade
    • Types of International Trade
      • Bilateral Trade
      • Multilateral Trade
    • Various Organisation Related to International Trade
    • Regional Trade Blocks
    • Foreign Trade: India
      • Trends in India’s Foreign Trade
      • Composition Indian Trade
      • Direction of India’s Foreign Trade
    • Trade Pattern and Policies
      • Changing Pattern of India’s foreign trade
      • Challenges and prospects of foreign trade of India
      • Impact of trade liberalisation on the geographical distribution of industries
      • Neo-liberal reforms in Africa: Race of India and China
  • Demography and Census World & India
    • Concept of human resources
    • Factors affecting the distribution of Population
    • Population growth
      • Theories of Population Growth
        • Malthusian Theory
        • Marxian Theory
        • Demographic transition theory
        • Optimum Population Theory
      • Size, growth rate and distribution of  population
      • Components of Population growth
    • Demographic Dividend
      • Demographic Window of Opportunity
    • Components of Population change
      • Birth Rate
      • Death Rate (Mortality Rate)
      • Migration
    • Population Composition
      • Age Sex Pyramids & their significance
      • Trends and Pattern in Sex Ratio
      • Initiatives to improve Sex ratio
      • Trends and Patterns in Literacy
      • Government’s Efforts
    • Fertility Rate
    • Impact of Population Change
    • Population Policies
    • Population problems
      • Global Nutrition Report, 2018
      • Global Hunger Index
  • Settlements and Urbanization
    • Rural Settlements
    • Urban Settlements
      • Origin of Urban Settlements- Functional Classification of Towns
      • Urbanization
      • Issues related to Urbanization in India
      • Schemes
        • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana or Housing for All Scheme
        • Smart City Initiative
        • AMRUT (Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation)
        • HRIDAY (Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana)
  • Regional Planning and Development
    • Concept of Region
    • Types of Regions
    • Issues of Regional Imbalances
    • Strategies for Regional Development
  • Human Development
    • Growth v/s Development
    • Approaches to Human Development
    • Human Development Index
    • International comparisons of Human Development
      • World Development Report, 2019
      • Human Development Report

7. Indian Society 

  • Unity in Diversity
    • Concepts of Unity and Diversity
    • Forms of Diversity in India
    • Reasons for so much Diversity
    • Bonds of Unity In India
    • Geo-political Unity
    • The Institution of Pilgrimage
    • Tradition of Accommodation
    • Tradition of Interdependence
    • Role of Sensitive Leaders
    • Constitutional Safeguards – Role of
    • Constitution Framers
  • Challenges of Diversity to Unity
    • Diversity of Constituents
    • Regionalism and Cultural Identities
    • Casteism
    • Linguism
    • Communalism
    • Social Inequalities
    • Regional Disparities
    • Ethno-Nationality and Ethnic Conflicts
    • Tribal Identity
    • Basic Sociological Concepts
    • The Family and Kinship
    • Concept of Patriarchy In India
  • Secularism
    • Secularism And Secularization
    • Western and Indian Concept
    • Process of Secularization
    • Secularism and Forced Conversion in India
  • Regionalism, Communalism, Fundamentalism and communal Violence
    • Regionalism
    • Regionalism in India
    • Types of Regionalism
    • Effects of Regionalism
    • Regionalism: Demand for Smaller States
    • Strategies to tackle Regionalism
    • Sons of Soil Concept
    • Communalism Concept, Orgin, Impact
    • Fundamentalism-religious, Cultural
    • Communal Violence
  • Social Empowerment
    • Constitutional Provisions Relevant to Social Justice & Empowerment of Scheduled Caste & Scheduled Tribes
    • Status of Minorities In India
  • The Scheduled Castes: From Untouchable to Dalit
    • Population of the Scheduled Castes
    • Types of Disabilities of the SCs
    • From Untouchables to the Dalits: The Process of Identity Formation
    • Combating Mechanism against Caste Atrocities and Violence
    • The State Efforts for Dalit Emancipation
    • Identify Political Implications on Dalits
  • Tribals in India
    • Chronic Indebtedness
    • Forest Related Problems
    • Destruction of the Forest Environment and the Tribal People
    • Development and Displacement
    • Analysis of Forest Rights Act
  • Women Movements
    • 19th Century Women Movements – Under Social Reform Movements
    • Women’s Issues During the Gandhian Era
    • Issues in Post Independence Era
    • Violence Against Women
    • Developmental Movement
    • Uniform Civil Code
    • Feminism and Post Feminism
  • Social Justice
    • Concept of Casteism in India
    • Caste and Politics
    • The Reservation Policy Debate
    • Social Justice and Social Development
  • Social Security In India
    • Concept
    • Social Security System in India
    • Organized Sector and Social Security
    • Unorganised Sector and Social Security
    • Centrally Funded Social Assistance Programmes
    • Public Initiatives
    • Review of the implementation of Social Security Laws in the Country
    • Suggestions for Improving the Social Security Matrix
    • Social security code for all
  • Understanding Poverty
    • Dimensions of Poverty
    • Linkage between Poverty and Development
    • Recommendations of the Rangarajan Committee Report
    • Poverty Alleviation Strategy Since Independence
    • Programs for Poverty Alleviation
    • Concept of Inequality
  • Globalization
    • Meaning of Globalization
    • Reasons for Globalization
    • Dimensions/Impact
    • Political
    • Cultural and Social
    • Economic
    • Anti-Globalization Movement
    • New Localism
    • NPM (New public management)
  • Urbanization & Census 2011
    • Urbanization
      • Trend and pattern of Urbanization
      • Issues Related to Urbanization in India
      • Status of Service Delivery and Governance
      • Urban Development Projects
      • Critical Analysis of Smart City Mission
      • SDG’s and urbanization
  • Census 2011
  • Contemporary Issues
    • Secularism, Regionalism & Communalism
  • Issues Related to Women
    • Gender Discrimination in Corporate Sector
    • Female Genital Mutilation
    • Bill on Banning Triple Talaq
    • Issues of women entry to the place of worship
    • Adultery No Longer a Crime: SC
    • Unwanted Girls in India
    • Altruistic Surrogacy in India
    • Women in Panchayats
    • Women Participation in Economy
    • # Me Too Movement
    • Draft National Policy for Women, 2016
    • Laws Related to Stalking in India
    • Debate on the Issue of Marital Rape
    • India’s Maternity Laws need Serious Tweaking
    • Women in Judiciary Matters
    • SC’s Judgment on Dowry
    • Gender Budgeting: Critical Analysis
  • Issues Related to Children
    • Issues Faced by Children in War Zone
    • High Dropout Rate of Girls in India
    • Child Trafficking
    • Safety of Children in Schools
    • Issue of Malnutrition in India
    • Amendments Proposed in Child Labour Act
    • Plight of Street Children
    • Juvenile Justice System
    • Child Marriages in India
    • Death for Child Rape
    • Draft National Child Protection Policy
    • National Action Plan for Children, 2016
  • Other Issues
    • India’s Family Planning Programme: Critical Analysis
    • Demography and Policy Planning
    • India’s Ageing Report
    • Legalising Same Sex Marriage
    • Domestic Workers: Issues and Laws
    • Development Leading to Displacement
    • Moral Policing
    • Euthanasia and Living Will
    • Inadequacies in existing Human Trafficking laws in India
    • Transgender Bill passed in Lok Sabha with Amendments
    • Mental Health Care Bill
    • Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act
    • Manual Scavenging
    • Mob lynching and Rule of Law
    • Issue Related to Under trials
    • Income Inequality in India
    • Indigenous People in India: An Analysis
    • Debate Over Death Penalty
    • Global Slavery Index Report
    • Right to Privacy Judgement
    • SC Verdict on SC/ST Atrocities Bill
    • Social Stigma Attached with HIV
  • Health & Education
    • status Health sector
    • Status of Education sector
    • Allied Health Care Professions Bill, 2018
    • Ahead on Malaria: On reduction in cases in India
    • India and Neglected Disease Treatment
    • TB Status in India and Bedaquiline Patent Challenge
    • Status of E-Pharmacies in India
    • Changes Proposed in No Detention Policy
    • National Policy on Education
    • Capacity Building for Primary Health Care
    • NITI Aayog on Privatisation of Urban Health Care
    • National Health Policy, 2017
    • Regulating Private Healthcare
    • India’s Nutrition Challenge
    • Food Fortification
    • Sanitation and Nutrition Linkage
    • Ayushman Bharat
  • Miscellaneous
    • Is social media polarizing society?
    • Online political advertising and challenge for democracy and society
    • Draft Social Security Code
    • Uniform Civil Code
    • Critical Analysis of Stand Up India Scheme
    • SC Suggests for Prison Reforms
    • Statue of Unity

8. Polity syllabus for UPSC: Read here

9. Governance syllabus for UPSC: Read here

10. International relations syllabus for UPSC: Read here


11. Economy syllabus for UPSC: Read here

12. Environment syllabus for UPSC : Read here

13. Science and Technology syllabus for UPSC: Read here

14. Internal Security Syllabus: Read here


15. Ethics Syllabus UPSC: Read here


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