Psychology Optional Syllabus: Paper-1
Foundations of Psychology
- Definition of Psychology;
- Historical antecedents of Psychology and trends in the 21st century;
- Psychology and scientific methods;
- Psychology in relation to other social sciences and natural sciences;
- Application of Psychology to societal problems.
2. Methods of Psychology:
- Types of research: Descriptive, evaluative, diagnostic and prognostic;
- Methods of Research: Survey, observation, case-study and experiments;
- Characteristics of experimental design and non-experimental design, Quasi-experimental designs; Focussed group discussions, brain storming, grounded theory approach.
3. Research Methods:
- Major steps in Psychological research (problem statement, hypothesis formulation, research designs, sampling, tools of data collection, analysis and interpretation and report writing)
- Fundamental versus applied research;
- Methods of data collection (interview, observation, questionnaire);
- Research designs (ex-post facto and experimental);
- Application of statistical technique (t – test, two way ANOVA correlation, regression and factor analysis);
- Item response theory.
4. Development of Human Behaviour:
- Growth and development; Principles of development,
- Role of genetic and environmental factors in determining human behaviour;
- Influence of cultural factors in socialization;
- Life span development – Characteristics, development tasks, promoting psychological well-being across major stages of the life span.
5. Sensation, Attention, and Perception:
- Sensation: concepts of threshold, absolute and difference thresholds, signal-detection and vigilance;
- Factors influencing attention including set and characteristics of stimulus;
- Definition and concept of perception, biological factors in perception;
- Perceptual organization-influence of past experiences, perceptual defence-factors influencing space and depth perception, size estimation and perceptual readiness;
- The plasticity of perception;
- Extrasensory perception;
- Culture and perception,
- Subliminal perception.
- Concept and theories of learning (Behaviourists, Gestaltalist and Information processing models);
- The Processes of extinction, discrimination and generalization;
- Programmed learning, probability learning, self-instructional learning, concepts;
- Types and the schedules of reinforcement, escape, avoidance and punishment, modeling and social learning.
- Encoding and remembering;
- Short term memory, Long term memory, Sensory memory, Iconic memory, Echoic memory:
- The Multistore model, levels of processing; Organization and Mnemonic techniques to improve memory;
- Theories of forgetting: decay, interference and retrieval failure: Metamemory;
- Amnesia: Anterograde and retrograde.
8. Thinking and Problem Solving:
- Piaget’s theory of cognitive development;
- Concept formation processes; Information processing, Reasoning and problem solving, Facilitating and hindering factors in problem solving,
- Methods of problem solving: Creative thinking and fostering creativity; Factors influencing decision making and judgment;
- Recent trends.
9. Motivation and Emotion:
- Psychological and physiological basis of motivation and emotion;
- Measurement of motivation and emotion;
- Effects of motivation and emotion on behaviour; Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation;
- Factors influencing intrinsic motivation;
- Emotional competence and the related issues.
10. Intelligence and Aptitude:
- Concept of intelligence and aptitude,
- Nature and theories of intelligence – Spearman, Thurstone, Gullford Vernon, Sternberg and J.P; Das;
- Emotional Intelligence, Social intelligence, measurement of intelligence and aptitudes,
- concept of IQ, deviation IQ, constancy of IQ; Measurement of multiple intelligence;
- Fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence.
- Definition and concept of personality;
- Theories of personality (psychoanalytical, sociocultural, interpersonal, developmental, humanistic, behaviouristic, trait and type approaches);
- Measurement of personality (projective tests, pencil-paper test);
- The Indian approach to personality;
- Training for personality development;
- Latest approaches like big 5 factor theory;
- The notion of self in different traditions.
12. Attitudes, Values, and Interests:
- Definition of attitudes, values and interests;
- Components of attitudes; Formation and maintenance of attitudes;
- Measurement of attitudes, values and interests;
- Theories of attitude change; Strategies for fostering values;
- Formation of stereotypes and prejudices; Changing others behaviour;
- Theories of attribution;
- Recent trends.
13. Language and Communication:
- Human language – Properties, structure and linguistic hierarchy, Language acquisition- predisposition, critical period hypothesis;
- Theories of language development – Skinner and Chomsky; Process and types of communication – effective communication training.
14. Issues and Perspectives in Modern Contemporary Psychology:
- Computer application in the psychological laboratory and psychological testing;
- Artificial intelligence; Psychocybernetics;
- Study of consciousness-sleep-wake schedules; dreams, stimulus deprivation, meditation, hypnotic/drug induced states;
- Extrasensory perception; Intersensory perception Simulation studies.
Psychology Optional Syllabus: Paper-2
Psychology: Issues and Applications
1. Psychological Measurement of Individual Differences:
- The nature of individual differences;
- Characteristics and construction of standardized psychological tests;
- Types of psychological tests;
- Use, misuse and limitation of psychological tests;
- Ethical issues in the use of psychological tests.
2. Psychological well being and Mental Disorders:
- Concept of health-ill health;
- Positive health, well being;
- Causal factors in mental disorders (Anxiety disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia and delusional disorders;
- personality disorders, substance abuse disorders);
- Factors influencing positive health, well being, life style and quality of life;
- Happiness disposition.
3. Therapeutic Approaches:
- Psychodynamic therapies;
- Behaviour therapies;
- Client centered therapy;
- Cognitive therapies;
- Indigenous therapies (Yoga, Meditation);
- Bio-feedback therapy;
- Prevention and rehabilitation of the mentally ill;
- Fostering mental health.
4. Work Psychology and Organisational Behaviour:
- Personnel selection and training; Use of psychological tests in the industry;
- Training and human resource development;
- Theories of work motivation – Herzberg, Maslow, Adam Equity theory, Porter and Lawler, Vroom;
- Leadership and participatory management;
- Advertising and marketing;
- Stress and its management;
- Ergonomics; consumer psychology;
- Managerial effectiveness;
- Transformational leadership;
- Sensitivity training;
- Power and politics in organizations.
5. Application of Psychology to Educational Field:
- Psychological principles underlying effective teaching-learning process;
- Learning styles; Gifted, retarded, learning disabled and their training;
- Training for improving memory and better academic achievement;
- Personality development and value education, Educational, vocational guidance and career counseling;
- Use of psychological tests in educational institutions;
- Effective strategies in guidance programmes.
6. Community Psychology:
- Definition and concept of community psychology;
- Use of small groups in social action; Arousing community consciousness and action for handling social problems;
- Group decision making and leadership for social change; Effective strategies for social change.
7. Rehabilitation Psychology:
- Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention programmes-role of psychologists;
- Organising of services for rehabilitation of physically, mentally and socially challenged persons including old persons, Rehabilitation of persons suffering from substance abuse, juvenile delinquency, criminal behaviour;
- Rehabilitation of victims of violence, Rehabilitation of HIV/AIDS victims, the role of social agencies.
8. Application of Psychology to disadvantaged groups:
- The concepts of disadvantaged, deprivation; Social, physical, cultural and economic consequences of disadvantaged and deprived groups;
- Educating and motivating the disadvantaged towards development; Relative and prolonged deprivation.
9. Psychological problems of social integration:
- The concept of social integration;
- The problem of caste, class, religion and language conflicts and prejudice;
- Nature and manifestation of prejudice between the in-group and out-group;
- Causal factors of social conflicts and prejudices;
- Psychological strategies for handling the conflicts and prejudices;
- Measures to achieve social integration.
10. Application of Psychology in Information Technology and Mass Media:
- The present scenario of information technology and the mass media boom and the role of psychologists;
- Selection and training of psychology professionals to work in the field of IT and mass media;
- Distance learning through IT and mass media;
- Entrepreneurship through e-commerce;
- Multilevel marketing; Impact of TV and fostering value through IT and mass media;
- Psychological consequences of recent developments in Information Technology.
11. Psychology and Economic development:
- Achievement motivation and economic development;
- Characteristics of entrepreneurial behaviour;
- Motivating and training people for entrepreneurship and economic development;
- Consumer rights and consumer awareness,
- Government policies for promotion of entrepreneurship among youth including women entrepreneurs.
12. Application of psychology to environment and related fields:
- Environmental psychology-effects of noise, pollution and crowding;
- Population psychology: psychological consequences of population explosion and high population density;
- Motivating for small family norm;
- Impact of rapid scientific and technological growth on degradation of environment.
13. Application of psychology in other fields:
- Military Psychology Devising psychological tests for defence personnel for use in selection, Training, counseling; training psychologists to work with defence personnel in promoting positive health; Human engineering in defence.
- Sports Psychology Psychological interventions in improving performance of athletes and sports. Persons participating in Individual and Team Games.
- Media influences on pro and antisocial behaviour.
- Psychology of terrorism.
14. Psychology of Gender:
- Issues of discrimination,
- Management of diversity;
- Glass ceiling effect,
- Self fulfilling prophesy,
- Women and Indian society