Aravalli Range

  • The Aravalli Range (or Aravali) is a mountain range located in Northern-Western India. It is one of the oldest fold mountains in the world.
  • It runs approximately 670 km in a south-west direction, starting near Delhi, passing through southern Haryana, Rajasthan, and ending in Ahmedabad Gujarat.
  • The Aravalli acts as the edge which separates the Thar desert from the plains and plateaus of eastern Rajasthan.
  • The range contains a series of ridges and peaks, which have widths between 6 miles and 60 miles, and elevations that vary between 1,000 and 3,000 feet.
  • The highest point of the Aravalli range is Guru Shikhar, which stands at an elevation of 5,650 feet on Mount Arbuda.
    • It is 15 km from Mount Abu, which is a popular hill station in the Aravalli Range.
  • It is divided into two sections: the Sambhar-Sirohi ranges, taller and including Guru Shikhar; and the Sambhar-Khetri ranges, consisting of three ridges that are discontinuous.
  • The Aravalli Range is rich in mineral resources like copper, zinc, lead, and marble.

Formation:

  • The Aravalli Range is arguably the oldest geological feature on Earth, having its origin in the Proterozoic era.
  • It is part of the Aravalli-Delhi orogenic belt, which is a large and complex geological structure formed due to the collision of tectonic plates during the Proterozoic era.
  • It is part of the Indian Shield, that was formed from a series of cratonic collisions.
  • In ancient times, Aravalli were extremely high, but since have worn down almost completely by millions of years of weathering. 
Aravalli Range

Rivers:

  • Three major rivers and their tributaries flow from the Aravalli, namely Banas and Sahibi rivers which are tributaries of Yamuna, as well as Luni River which flows into the Rann of Kutch.
  • North-to-south flowing rivers originate from the western slopes of the Aravalli range in Rajasthan, pass through the southeastern portion of the Thar Desert, and end into Gujarat.
    • Luni River, originates in the Pushkar valley near Ajmer, ends in the marshy lands of Rann of Kutch. It used to be one of the channel of the Saraswati River, as a result its banks have several Indus Valley Civilisation sites including Lothal.
    • Sakhi River, ends in the marshy lands of Rann of Kutch.
    • Sabarmati River, originates on the western slopes of Aravalli range of the Udaipur district, end into the Gulf of Khambhat of the Arabian Sea.
  • West to north-west flowing rivers originate from the western slopes of the Aravalli range in Rajasthan, flow through semi-arid historical Shekhawati region and drain into southern Haryana. Several Ochre Coloured Pottery culture sites, also identified as late Harappan phase of Indus Valley Civilisation culture, have been found along the banks of these rivers.
    • Sahibi River, originates near Manoharpur in Sikar district flows through Haryana and meets its confluence with the Yamuna in Delhi where it is called Najafgarh drain, along with its following tributaries: Masani barrage, is an important wildlife area.
      • Dohan river, tributary of the Sahibi River, originates near Neem Ka Thana in Sikar district).
      • Sota River, tributary of the Sahibi River with which it merges at Behror in Alwar district.
      • Krishnavati river, former tributary of Sahibi river, originates near Dariba copper mines in Rajsamand district of Rajasthan, flows through Patan in Dausa district and Mothooka in Alwar district, then disappears in Mahendragarh district in Haryana much before reaching Sahibi River. It previously was a tributary to the Sahibi and part of its present canalised channel is called the Outfall Drain No. 8.
        • Many important wetlands lie in its paleochannel, including Matanhail, Chhuchhakwas-Godhari, Khaparwas Wildlife Sanctuary, Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary, Sarbashirpur, Sultanpur National Park, Basai and The Lost Lake (Gurugram).
  • West to north-east flowing rivers, originating from the eastern slopes of Aravalli range in Rajasthan, flow northwards to Yamuna.
    • Chambal River, a southern-side tributary of Yamuna River.
      • Banas River, a northern-side tributary of Chambal River.
        • Berach River, a southern-side tributary of Banas River, originates in the hills of Udaipur district.
          • Ahar River, a right-side (or eastern side) tributary of the Berach river, originates in the hills of Udaipur district, flows through Udaipur city forming the famous Lake Pichola.
          • Wagli River, a right-side tributary of the Berach River.
          • Wagon River, a right-side tributary of the Berach River.
          • Gambhiri River, a right-side tributary of the Berach River.
          • Orai River, a right-side tributary of the Berach River.
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