India is seventh-largest country in the world and also the second populous. It lies in southern Asia. It is officially known as the Republic of India. India, a union of states, is a Sovereign, Secular, Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of Government. It gets very difficult to manage a large country from one place. So Indian Constitution gives a right to the central government to make states as it feels suitable.

The President is the constitutional head of Executive of the Union. In the states, the Governor, as the representative of the President, is the head of Executive. The system of government in states closely resembles that of the Union. There are 28 states and 8 Union territories in the country. Union Territories are administered by the President through an Administrator appointed by him/her. From the largest to the smallest, each State/UT of India has a unique demography, history, and culture, dress, festivals, language, etc.

Lying entirely in the northern hemisphere, the mainland extends between latitudes 8° 4′ and 37° 6′ north, longitudes 68° 7′ and 97° 25′ east and measures about 3,214 km from north to south between the extreme latitudes and about 2,933 km from east to west between the extreme longitudes. It has a land frontier of about 15,200 km. The total length of the coastline of the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands, and Andaman & Nicobar Islands is 7,516.6 km.

Indian Standard TimeGMT + 05:30

Border Countries

  • Afghanistan and Pakistan to the north-west;
  • China, Bhutan, and Nepal to the north;
  • Myanmar to the east; and
  • Bangladesh to the east of West Bengal.
  • Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea, formed by Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.
Life Expectancy Rate65.8 years (Males); 68.1 years (Females) in the period 2006-2011
Sex Ratio940 according to the 2011 census
Ethnic GroupsAll the five major racial types – Australoid, Mongoloid, Europoid, Caucasian, and Negroid find representation among the people of India.
ReligionsAccording to the 2001 census, out of the total population of 1,028 million in the Country, Hindus constituted the majority with 80.5%, Muslims came second at 13.4%, followed by Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, and others.
LanguagesThere are 22 different languages that have been recognized by the Constitution of India, of which Hindi is an Official Language. Article 343(3) empowered Parliament to provide by law for continued use of English for official purposes.
LiteracyAccording to the provisional results of the 2011 census, the literacy rate in the country stands at 74.04 percent, 82.14% for males and 65.46% for females.

Indian States and Union territories

India Map Free Map of India With States UTs Capital
map of india physical upsc

States

S.NoStates NameCapitalFounded on
1Andhra PradeshHyderabad (Proposed Capital Amaravati)1 Nov. 1956
2Arunachal PradeshItanagar20 Feb. 1987
3AssamDispur26 Jan. 1950
4BiharPatna26 Jan. 1950
5ChhattisgarhRaipur1 Nov. 2000
6GoaPanaji30 May. 1987
7GujaratGandhinagar1 May. 1960
8HaryanaChandigarh1 Nov. 1966
9Himachal PradeshShimla25 Jan. 1971
10JharkhandRanchi15 Nov. 2000
11KarnatakaBengaluru (formerly Bangalore)1 Nov. 1956
12KeralaThiruvananthapuram1 Nov. 1956
13Madhya PradeshBhopal1 Nov. 1956
14MaharashtraMumbai1 May. 1960
15ManipurImphal21 Jan. 1972
16MeghalayaShillong21 Jan. 1972
17MizoramAizawl20 Feb. 1987
18NagalandKohima1 Dec. 1963
19OdishaBhubaneswar26 Jan. 1950
20PunjabChandigarh1 Nov. 1956
21RajasthanJaipur1 Nov. 1956
22SikkimGangtok16 May. 1975
23Tamil NaduChennai26 Jan. 1950
24TelanganaHyderabad2 Jun. 2014
25TripuraAgartala21 Jan. 1972
26Uttar PradeshLucknow26 Jan. 1950
27UttarakhandDehradun (Winter)
Gairsain (Summer)
9 Nov. 2000
28West BengalKolkata1 Nov. 1956

Union Territories

Union Territories NamesCapitalFounded on
Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPort Blair1 Nov. 1956
ChandigarhChandigarh1 Nov. 1966
Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & DiuDaman26 Jan. 2020
DelhiNew Delhi9 May. 1905
Jammu and KashmirSrinagar (Summer)
Jammu (Winter)
31 Oct 2019
LakshadweepKavaratti1 Nov. 1956
PuducherryPondicherry1 Nov. 1954
LadakhLeh31 Oct 2019

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Bhavik Balani

Thank you…Very informative

Last edited 3 months ago by Bhavik Balani