In this article, You will read Important Hill Ranges of India – for UPSC IAS.
Important Hill Ranges of India
- Aravalli hills
- Vindhyan range
- Satpura range
- Western Ghat
- Eastern Ghat
- They originate in Gujarat (at Palanpur) and extend till Haryana. They terminate in the Delhi ridge.
- They have a maximum extent of 800 km
- They are old fold mountain ranges, one of the oldest tectonic mountains in the world.
- Rocks that make up the Aravallis are more than 2 billion years old.
- Unlike other fold mountains, Aravallis have an average elevation in the range of 400-600m only. This is because throughout their geological history they were subjected to the processes of weathering and erosion.
- Only a few peaks reach an elevation of above 1000m. These include – Mt. Gurushikhar (1722m, the highest point of Aravallis), Mt.Abu (1158m, it’s part of a plateau).
- Geologically, they are mainly made up of Dharwar igneous and metamorphic rocks.
- They contain the largest marble deposits in India.
- Rivers Banas, Luni, Sabarmati are born in Aravallis. Banas is a tributary of Chambal. Luni is an ephemeral river that terminates in the Rann of Kutch.
- They contain several passes that cut through them, especially between Udaipur and Ajmer like Piplighat, Dewair, Desuri, etc.
- They also contain several lakes such as Lake Sambhar (largest inland saline water body in India), Lake Dhebar (south of Aravallis), Lake Jaisamand (in the Jaisamand wildlife sanctuary), etc.
- These are non-tectonic mountains, they were formed not because of plate collision but because of the downward faulting of the Narmada Rift Valley (NRV) to their south.
- They extend for 1200km from Bharuch in Gujarat to Sasaram in Bihar.
- Geologically, they are younger than Aravallis and Satpura hills.
- Their average height is in the range of 300-650m.
- They are made up of older Proterozoic rocks. They are cut across by Kimberlite piles (diamond deposits)
- They are known by local names such as Panna, Kaimur, Rewa, etc.
- They rise from the NRV in the form of steep, sharp slopes called the escarpments. These escarpments are well developed in Kaimur and Panna regions.
- Satpura range is a combination of Satpura, Mahadeo, and Maikala hills.
- Satpura hills are tectonic mountains, formed about 1.6 billion years ago, as a result of folding and structural uplift. They are a Horst landform.
- They run for a distance of about 900km.
- Mahadeo hills lie to the east of Satpura hills. Pachmarhi is the highest point of the Satpura range. Dhupgarh (1350m) is the highest peak of Pachmarhi.
- Maikala hills lie to the east of Mahadeo hills. Amarkantak plateau is a part of the Maikala hills. It is about 1127m.
- The plateau has the drainage systems of Narmada and Son, hence it has drainage into the Bay of Bengal as well as the Arabian sea.
- These are mostly situated in the States of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.
- These hills are rich in bauxite, due to the presence of Gondwana rocks.
- Dhuandhar waterfalls over the Narmada is situated in MP.
|Maikal Range||Eastern part of the Satpuras range (MP)|
|Kaimur Range||Eastern portion of the Vindhya Range in MP, UP & Bihar, Parallel to river son|
|Mahadeo Range||forms the central part of the Satpura Range, located in MP|
Highest peak: Dhoopgarh
|Ajanta Range||Maharashtra, south of river Tapi, sheltering caves of world famous paintings of Gupta period|
|Rajmahal Hills||In Jharkhand made up of lava basaltic rocks|
Point of Ganges bifurcation
|Garo Khasi Jaintia Hills||Continuous mountain range in Meghalaya|
|Mikir Hills||a group of hills located to the south of the Kaziranga National Park (Assam)|
a part of the Karbi Anglong Plateau
|Abor Hills||Hills of Arunachal Pradesh, near the border with China, bordered by Mishmi and Miri Hills|
drained by Dibang River, a tributary of the Brahmaputra
|Mishmi Hills||in Arunachal Pradesh with its northern & eastern parts touching China|
Situated at the junction of Northeastern Himalaya and Indo-Burma ranges
|Patkai Range||Also known as Purvanchal Range, consist of three major hills The Patkai-Bum, the Garo-Khasi-Jaintia, and Lushai Hills|
situated on India’s north-eastern border with Burma
|Mizo Hills (Lushai Hills)||part of the Patkai range in Mizoram and partially in Tripura|
|Dalma Hills||Located in Jamshedpur, famous for Dalma national park & minerals like iron ore & manganese|
|Baba Budan Giri||Karnataka|
|Harishchandra||At Pune, acts as a water divide bw Godavari & Krishna|
Hills made up of lava
|Balaghat range||Bw MP & Maharashtra, famous for manganese deposits|
|Talcher series||Odisha, rich in bituminous coal|
|Champion series||Karnataka, Dharawar period, rich in gold (contains kolar mines)|
|Nilgiri Hills||Referred as Blue mountains, a range of mountains in the westernmost part of Tamil Nadu at the junction of Karnataka and Kerala|
Hills are separated from the Karnataka plateau to the north by the Moyar River and from the Anaimalai Hills & Palni Hills to the south by the Palghat Gap
|Palani Hills||The eastward extension of the Western Ghats ranges|
adjoin the high Anamalai range on the west, and extend east into the plains of Tamil Nadu
|Anamalai Hills||Also known as Elephant Hill|
a range of mountains in the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu and Kerala with the highest peak Anamudi
|Cardmom Hills||Part of the southern Western Ghats located in southeast Kerala and southwest Tamil Nadu|
|Pachamalai Hills||also known as the Pachais|
The Eastern Ghats in Tamil Nadu