• Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes, is a metabolic disease that causes high blood sugar.
  • The hormone insulin moves sugar from the blood into our cells to be stored or used for energy.
  • With diabetes, our body either doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t effectively use the insulin it does make.
  • Untreated high blood sugar from diabetes can damage nerves, eyes, kidneys, and other organs.

There are a few different types of diabetes:

  • Diabetes Mellitus
    1. Type 1 Diabetes
    2. Type 2 Diabetes
  • Diabetes Insipidus
  • Gestational Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes

  • It is also known as Diabetes Mellitus Type 1.
  • It occurs when the pancreas fails to produce sufficient insulin.
  • The consequent lack of insulin causes an increase in glucose levels in urine and blood.
  • Symptoms include excessive excretion of urine (polyuria), thirst (polydipsia), constant hunger, weight loss, vision changes, and fatigue. These symptoms may occur suddenly.

Type 2 diabetes

  • It is also called Diabetes Mellitus Type 2.
  • Type 2 diabetes (formerly called non-insulin-dependent, or adult-onset) results from the body’s ineffective use of insulin.
  • The prime reason for the occurrence of type 2 diabetes is obesity and lack of exercise in people who are genetically biased. Type 2 diabetes comprises the majority of people with diabetes around the world.
  • Symptoms may be similar to those of type 1 diabetes but are often less marked. As a result, the disease may be diagnosed several years after onset, once complications have already arisen.

Diabetes Insipidus

  • When the body is unable to respond or produce the Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which is secreted by the hypothalamus, Diabetes Insipidus occurs.
  • This hormone helps the kidneys manage the amount of water in the human body. Without this essential hormone, the kidneys pass an abnormally large volume of urine that is insipid (meaning: odourless and dilute).

Gestational Diabetes

  • This condition occurs in pregnant women who develop high blood sugar levels without a previous history. The condition usually resolves after delivery.

National Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy Survey

The survey conducted during 2015-2019 by Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.

  • The prevalence of diabetes in India has been recorded at 11.8% in the last four years with almost the same percentage of men and women suffering from the disease.
  • The highest prevalence of diabetes (13.2%) was observed in the 70-79 years’ age group. Males showed a prevalence of diabetes (12%) compared to females (11.7%).
  • The prevalence of any form of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the diabetic population aged up to 50 years was found to be 16.9%.
  • Prevalence of blindness among diabetics was 2.1% and visual impairment was 13.7%.
  • Diabetes and diabetic retinopathy have been emerging as a significant noncommunicable disease leading to ocular morbidity (blindness).
  • It is estimated that diabetic retinopathy was responsible for 1.06% of blindness and 1.16% of visual impairment globally in 2015.
  • Scientists have recently demonstrated the role of a protein secretagogin (SCGN) in increasing insulin action in obesity-induced diabetes.
  • SCGN is now established as a functional insulin-binding protein with therapeutic potential against diabetes.
  • SCGN binds to insulin and protects it from various stresses, increases its stability, and adds to its action.
  • SCGN is found in lower quantities in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients.
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