Q. Consider the following international agreements

  1. The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
  2. The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
  3. The World Heritage Convention

Which of the above has/have a bearing on the biodiversity?

(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

  • The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
    • It was adopted by the 31st session of the Conference of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations on 3rd November 2001.
    • It is also known as the Seed Treaty.
    • India is a signatory to the treaty.
  • The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
    • It is the sole legally binding international agreement linking environment and development to sustainable land management.
    • The convention was drafted and opened for signing in 1994. It became effective in 1996 after receiving 50 ratifications.
    • Aim: Its 197 Parties aim, through partnerships, to implement the Convention and achieve the Sustainable Development Goals
  • The World Heritage Convention-
    • Created in 1972, the primary mission of the Convention is to identify and protect the world’s natural and cultural heritage considered to be of outstanding universal value.
    • It is a Convention under the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

Q. Consider the following statements regarding ‘Earth Hour’:

  1. It is an initiative of UNEP and UNESCO.
  2. It is a movement in which the participants switch off the lights for one hour on a certain day every year.
  3. It is a movement to raise the awareness about the climate change and the need to save the planet.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct

(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (c) 2 and 3 only

Earth Hour
  • Earth Hour is the World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF)’s annual initiative that began in 2007.
  • It encourages people from more than 180 countries to switch off the lights from 8.30 pm to 9.30 pm as per their local time.
  • It is held every year on the last Saturday of March.
  • The idea is to refrain from the use of non-essential lighting to save energy in a symbolic call for environmental protection.
  • Significance:
    • Earth Hour aims to increase awareness and spark global conversations on protecting nature, tackling the climate crisis, and working together to shape a brighter future for humans.
    • The symbolic lights-out Earth Hour has become the world’s largest grassroots movement to raise awareness about climate change and energy conservation and to assure a sustainable, brighter future.
World Wildlife Fund
  • It is the world’s leading conservation organisation and works in more than 100 countries.
  • It was established in 1961 and is headquartered at Gland, Switzerland.
  • Mission:
    • To conserve nature and reduce the most pressing threats to the diversity of life on Earth.
  • Other Initiatives of WWF:
    • TX2 Goal (a global commitment to double the world’s wild tigers by 2022)
    • TRAFFIC (a joint program of WWF and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)).
    • Living Planet Report.

Q. If a wetland of international importance is brought under the ‘Montreux Record’, what does it imply?

(a) Changes in ecological character have occurred, are occurring or are likely to occur in the wetland as a result of human interference

(b) The country in which the wetland is located should enact a law to prohibit any human activity within five kilometres from the edge of the wetland

(c) The survival of the wetland depends on the cultural practices and traditions of certain communities living in its vicinity and therefore the cultural diversity therein should not be destroyed

(d) It is given the status of ‘World Heritage Site’

Answer: (a) Changes in ecological character have occurred, are occurring or are likely to occur in the wetland as a result of human interference

  • The Montreux Record is a register of wetland sites on the List of Wetlands of International Importance.
  • It registers the changes occurred or occurring or may occur in ecological character because of technological developments, pollution, or other human interference.
  • It is maintained as part of the Ramsar List.
  • The main objective of this mechanism is to provide assistance to developed and developing countries alike in solving the problems or threats that make inclusion in the Montreux Record necessary.
  • Currently, two wetlands of India are in Montreux record: Keoladeo National Park (Rajasthan) and Loktak Lake (Manipur).
  • Chilika Lake (Odisha) was placed in the record but was later removed from it.

Q. With reference to Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS), consider the following statements:

  1. It is an autonomous organization under the Ministry of Environment and Forests.
  2. It strives to conserve nature through action-based research, education and public awareness.
  3. It organizes and conducts nature trails and camps for the general public.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (c) 2 and 3 only

Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS)
  • Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS) is one of the largest non-governmental organizations in India engaged in conservation and biodiversity research.
  • BNHS Mission: Conservation of nature, primarily biological diversity through action based on research, education, and public awareness.
  • BNHS Vision: Premier independent scientific organization with a broad-based constituency, excelling in the conservation of threatened species and habitats.
  • BNHS also organizes and conducts nature trails and camps for the general public.
  • It supports many research efforts through grants and publishes the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society.
  • Many prominent naturalists, including the ornithologists Sálim Ali and S. Dillon Ripley, have been associated with it.
  • BNHS is the partner of BirdLife International in India. It has been designated as a ‘Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation’ by the Department of Science and Technology.
  • Headquarters: Hornbill House, Mumbai.

Q. With reference to ‘Global Environment Facility’, which of the following statements is/are correct?

(a) It serves as financial mechanism for ‘Convention on Biological Diversity’ and ‘United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change’

(b) It undertakes scientific research on environmental issues at global level

(c) It is an agency under OECD to facilitate the transfer of technology and funds to underdeveloped countries with specific aim to protect their environment

(d) Both (a) and (b)

Answer: (a) It serves as financial mechanism for ‘Convention on Biological Diversity’ and ‘United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change’.

Global Environment Facility (GEF)
  • The Global Environment Facility (GEF) is a multilateral financial mechanism that provides grants to developing countries for projects that benefit the global environment and promote sustainable livelihoods in local communities.
  • GEF was established during the Rio Earth Summit of 1992.
  • It is based in Washington, D.C., United States.
  • The GEF is jointly managed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the World Bank, and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
  • 183 nations are united under GEF in partnership with civil society organizations (CSOs), international institutions, private sector, etc. to address the environmental issues across the globe.
  • The financial mechanism was established to help tackle our planet’s most pressing environmental problems. It provides funds to the developing countries and transition economies for projects related to climate change, biodiversity, the ozone layer, etc.
  • Since its inception, this multilateral financial mechanism has advanced $21.1 billion in grants and mobilized an additional $114 billion in financing for more than 5,000 projects in 170 countries.
  • The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) was founded in 1948 as the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC).
  • The OECD is an intergovernmental economic organisation, founded to stimulate economic progress and world trade. Most OECD members are high-income economies with a very high Human Development Index (HDI) and are regarded as developed countries.
  • Members of the OECD are democratic countries that support free markets.
  • It gives its member countries a place to share policy experiences, look for solutions to common challenges, discover and share best practices, and coordinate domestic and international policies.
  • The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is a think-tank or monitoring group that is an official Permanent Observer to the United Nations.
  • The OECD’s headquarters are located in Paris, France, in the Château de la Muette.
  • In 2017, the OECD member states accounted for 62.2 percent of global nominal GDP (US$49.6 trillion) and 42.8 percent of global GDP (International $ 54.2 trillion) at purchasing power parity.
  • As of Jan 2023, there are 38 members
    • Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, and the United States are among the 38 member countries.
  • India is not a member of OECD.
    • Brazil, Russia is also not the Member of OECD.
  • Reports and Indices by OECD
    • Government at a Glance 2017 report.
    • International Migration Outlook.
    • OECD Better Life Index.

Q. With reference to a conservation organization called ‘Wetlands International’, which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. It is an intergovernmental organization formed by the countries which are signatories to Ramsar Convention.
  2. It works at the field level to develop and mobilize knowledge, and use the practical experience to advocate for better policies.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Wetlands International
  • Wetlands International is a global organisation that works to sustain and restore wetlands and their resources for people and biodiversity. Wetland International is an NGO.
  • It is an independent, not-for-profit, global organisation, supported by government and NGO membership from around the world.
  • Wetlands International’s work ranges from research and community-based field projects to advocacy and engagement with governments, corporate and international policy fora and conventions. Wetlands International works through partnerships and is supported by contributions from an extensive specialist expert network and tens of thousands of volunteers.
  • It was founded in 1937 as the International Wildfowl Inquiry and the organisation was focused on the protection of waterbirds. Later, the name became International Waterfowl & Wetlands Research Bureau (IWRB). The scope became wider; besides waterbirds, the organisation was also working on the protection of wetland areas.
  • Later, organisations with similar objectives emerged in Asia and the Americas: the Asian Wetland Bureau (AWB) (initiated as INTERWADER in 1983) and Wetlands for the Americas (WA) (initiated in 1989).
  • In 1991, the three organisations started to work closely together.
  • In 1995, the working relation developed into the global organisation Wetlands International.

Q. Other than poaching, what are the possible reasons for the decline in the population of Ganges River Dolphins?

  1. Construction of dams and barrages on rivers
  2. Increase in the population of crocodiles in rivers
  3. Getting trapped in fishing nets accidentally
  4. U se of synthetic fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals in crop-fields in the vicinity of rivers

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer: (c) 1, 3 and 4 only

Ganges River Dolphins
  • Scientific Name: Platanista gangetica
  • The Ganges River Dolphin was officially discovered in 1801.
  • Ganges river dolphins live in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna and Karnaphuli-Sangu river systems of Nepal, India, and Bangladesh.
    • The Ganges river dolphin can only live in freshwater and is essentially blind.
    • They hunt by emitting ultrasonic sounds, which bounces off of fish and other prey, enabling them to “see” an image in their mind. They are also called ‘susu’.
  • Population of Gangetic river Dolphin is 1200-1800.
  • Significance:
    • It is a reliable indicator of the health of the entire river ecosystem.
    • It was recognised as the National Aquatic Animal in 2009, by the Government of India.
  • Threats:
    • Bycatch: These dolphins and people both favor areas of the river where fish are plentiful and the water current is slower. This has led to fewer fish for people and more dolphins dying as a result of accidentally being caught in fishing nets, also known as bycatch.
    • Pollution: Industrial, agricultural, and human pollution is another serious cause of habitat degradation.
    • Dams: Construction of dams and other irrigation-related projects make them susceptible to inbreeding and more vulnerable to other threats because they cannot move to new areas.
      • Dolphins below a dam are threatened by heavy pollution, increased fishing activities and vessel traffic. They also have less food because dams disturb the migration, breeding cycles and habitat of fish and other prey.
  • Conservation Status:
    • Indian Wildlife (Protection), Act 1972: Schedule I.
    • International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN): Endangered.
    • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES): Appendix I (most endangered).
    • Convention on Migratory Species (CMS): Appendix II (migratory species that need conservation and management or would significantly benefit from international co-operation).
  • Steps Taken:
    • Project Dolphin: The Prime Minister announced the government’s plan to launch a Project Dolphin in his Independence Day Speech 2020. It will be on the lines of Project Tiger, which has helped increase the tiger population.
    • Dolphin Sanctuary: Vikramshila Ganges Dolphin Sanctuary has been established in Bihar.
    • Conservation Plan: The Conservation Action Plan for the Ganges River Dolphin 2010-2020, which “identified threats to Gangetic Dolphins and impact of river traffic, irrigation canals and depletion of prey-base on Dolphins populations”.
    • National Ganga River Dolphin Day: The National Mission for Clean Ganga celebrates 5th October as National Ganga River Dolphin Day.

Q. Which of the following adds/add carbon dioxide to the carbon cycle on the planet Earth?

  1. Volcanic action
  2. Respiration
  3. Photosynthesis
  4. Decay of organic matter

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 1, 2 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer: (c) 1, 2 and 4 only

  • The Process of photosynthesis takes up Carbon dioxide and release oxygen. Hence photosynthesis does not add carbon dioxide to the carbon cycle.
  • Volcanic action leads to the release of Carbon dioxide.
  • Respiration is the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues and the release of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. 
  • The process of decomposition releases Carbon dioxide.
Carbon cycle
  • Carbon cycle shows the movement of carbon in elemental and combined states on earth. Diamond and graphite are the elemental forms of carbon and in a combined state, it is found as carbonates in minerals and as carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere.
  • Carbon cycle is the process where carbon compounds are interchanged among the biosphere, geosphere, pedosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the earth.
  • Carbon Cycle Steps
    • Carbon present in the atmosphere is absorbed by plants for photosynthesis.
    • These plants are then consumed by animals and carbon gets bioaccumulated into their bodies.
    • These animals and plants eventually die, and upon decomposing, carbon is released back into the atmosphere.
    • Some of the carbon that is not released back into the atmosphere eventually become fossil fuels.
    • These fossil fuels are then used for man-made activities, which pump more carbon back into the atmosphere.
carbon cycle

Q. If you walk through countryside, you are likely to see some birds stalking alongside the cattle to seize the insects disturbed by their movement through grasses. Which of the following is/are such bird/birds?

  1. Painted Stork
  2. Common Myna
  3. Black-necked Crane

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 only
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 3 only

Answer: (b) 2 only

Common Myna
  • Common myna or Indian myna (Acridotheres tristis), is a bird in the family Sturnidae, native to Asia.
  • Common Myna is an opportunistic feeder on insects, disturbed by grazing cattle.
  • It is an omnivorous open woodland bird with a strong territorial instinct.
  • It has adapted extremely well to urban environments.
Common Myna
Painted Stork
  • The painted stork (Mycteria leucocephala) is a large wader in the stork family.
  • Painted Stork is a fish-eating bird.
  • Painted Stork does not feed on insects.
  • It is found in the wetlands of the plains of tropical Asia south of the Himalayas in the Indian Subcontinent and extending into Southeast Asia.
Painted stork
Black-necked Crane
  • Black-necked Crane is found in the Trans-Himalayan region.
  • They are found around Arunachal Pradesh and Ladakh.
    • So it is unlikely to find it while walking through the “countryside” in all states and places.
  • It is revered in Buddhist traditions and culturally protected across much of its range. A festival in Bhutan celebrates the bird while the Indian union territory of Ladakh has designated it as the state bird.
Black-necked crane

Q. With reference to Eco-Sensitive Zones’, which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. Eco-Sensitive Zones are the areas that are declared under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
  2. The purpose of the declaration of Eco-Sensitive Zones is to prohibit all kinds of human activities in those zones except agriculture.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Eco-Sensitive Zones
  • Eco-sensitive zones are ecologically Fragile Areas are areas within 10 km around protected areas to act as a buffer.
  • They are notified under section 3 of the Environment Protection Act 1986 by the Ministry of Environment and Forest.
  • Certain activities are either banned or regulated to protect the environment.  
  • Agriculture, Horticulture practices by local communities, organic farming, rainwater harvesting, scientific research, tourism, etc. are permitted in the Eco-sensitive zones.
  • They act as a shock absorber for the protected areas and are a transition zone from high protection areas to lesser protection areas.  
  • They help in In-situ conservation.
  • They minimize forest depletion and man-animal conflict.
  • They minimize the impact of urbanization and developmental activities in protected areas.

Q. Consider the following statements:

  1. Animal Welfare Board of India is established under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
  2. National Tiger Conservation Authority is a statutory body.
  3. National Ganga River Basin Authority is chaired by the Prime Minister.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 2 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (b) 2 and 3 only

Animal Welfare Board of India
  • Animal welfare Board of India is a statutory body established under the Prevention of cruelty to animals act 1960 in 1962.
  •  It’s an advisory body of the Government of India on animal welfare laws. Hence statement 1 is incorrect.
  •  It consists of 28 members who serve for a term of 3 years. 
  • The nodal ministry of the Animal Welfare Board of India, Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying
  • Its headquarters is in Ballabgarh in the Faridabad district of Haryana.
National Tiger conservation authority
National Ganga River Basin Authority
  • The National Ganga River Basin Authority was replaced by the National Ganga Council under  River Ganga (Rejuvenation, Protection, and Management) Authorities Order, 2016.
  • The National Ganga Council is chaired by the Prime Minister and the Union Minister for Jal Shakti is its vice-chairperson.
  • It is responsible for the implementation of the national mission for Clean Ganga.

Q. Consider the following pairs

Wetlands       :       Confluence of rivers

  1. Harike Wetlands        :        Confluence of Beas and Satluj/Sutlej  
  2. Keoladeo Ghana National Park    :        Confluence of Banas and Chambal 
  3. Kolleru Lake    :      Confluence of Musi and Krishna 

Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 only

Harike Wetland
  • It is one of the largest man-made wetlands of northern India.
  • This wetland shares its area with the Tarntaran, Ferozpur, and Kapurthala districts of Punjab.
  • It came into existence after the construction of a barrage near the confluence of rivers Sutlej and Beas in 1952. 
  • It is also a Ramsar site.
  • Harike is a significant site for birds migrating from across the international frontiers.
  • The wetland area is spread over about 41 km2 and supports more than 400 avian species.
  • Harike also harbours endangered aquatic mammalian as well as reptilian fauna like the Indus river dolphin, smooth-coated otter, and seven species of rare freshwater turtles.
Keoladeo Ghana National Park
  • It is a man-made and man-managed wetland in Rajasthan. It is also declared a World Heritage site.
  • It is situated at the confluence of the Gambhir and Banganga rivers
  • It was designated as a Ramsar site under the Wetland Convention in October 1981.
  • There is open grassland that provides a habitat for breeding, wintering, and staging migratory birds.
  • The 29 km2 (11 sq mi) reserve is locally known as Ghana
  • These diverse habitats are home to approximately 366 bird species, 379 floral species, 50 species of fish, 13 species of snakes, 5 species of lizards, 7 amphibian species, 7 turtle species, and a variety of other invertebrates.
Kolleru Lake
  • It is a freshwater lake in Andhra Pradesh.
  • It was previously a lagoon.
  • It was designated a wetland of international importance in November 2002 under the international Ramsar Convention.
  • It lies between the Godavari and Krishna river deltas.
  • Many birds migrate here in winters, such as Siberian cranes, ibis, and painted storks.
  • The lake was an important habitat for an estimated 20 million residents and migratory birds, including the grey or spot-billed pelican.

Q. The most important strategy for the conservation of biodiversity together with traditional human life is the establishment of

(a) biosphere reserves

(b) botanical gardens

(c) national parks

(d) wildlife sanctuaries

Answer: (a) biosphere reserves

Biosphere Reserves
  • The most important strategy for the conservation of biodiversity together with traditional human life is the establishment of biosphere reserves.
  • These reserves are established to protect larger areas of natural habitat than a typical national park or animal sanctuary.
  • The site must contain a protected and minimally disturbed core area of value of nature conservation.
  • Sustainable development of reserves is based on local community efforts.
  • It includes terrestrial, marine and coastal ecosystems.
  • There are 18 biosphere reserves in India.

Botanical gardens

  • It is a place where ferns, conifers and flowering plants are grown and displayed for the purposes of research and education.

National Park

  • This is an area set aside by a national government to preserve the natural environment.
  • This area is maintained for the purpose of protecting & propagating or developing wildlife therein or its environment.

Wildlife sanctuaries

  • This is an area where animal habitats and their surroundings are protected from any sort of disturbance. The capturing, killing and poaching of animals is strictly prohibited in these regions.

Q. The scientific view is that the increase in global temperature should not exceed 2°C above pre-industrial level. If the global temperature increases beyond 3°C above the pre-industrial level, what can be its possible impact/impacts on the world?

  1. Terrestrial biosphere tends toward a net carbon source.
  2. Widespread coral mortality will occur.
  3. All the global wetlands will permanently disappear.
  4. Cultivation of cereals will not be possible anywhere in the world.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer: (b) 1 and 2 only

  • Terrestrial biosphere
    • It has an important role in regulating atmospheric composition and climate.
    • It can release or absorb the greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O).
    • It regulates fluxes of energy, water and aerosols between the earth surface and atmosphere.
    • Carbon is exchanged most quickly with the atmosphere, although small amounts of carbon leave the terrestrial biosphere and enter the oceans as dissolved organic carbon.
  • If the global temperature increases beyond 3 °C above the pre-industrial level, the terrestrial biosphere tends toward a net carbon source. Taiga and temperate forests act as an important carbon sink; these forests would turn into a carbon source.
  • Corals
    • These are invertebrate animals belonging to a large group of colourful and fascinating animals called Cnidaria. 
    • Coral reefs are extremely diverse marine ecosystems hosting over 4,000 species of fish, massive numbers of cnidarians, molluscs, crustaceans, and many other animals.
    • As temperatures rise, mass coral bleaching events occur. If the temperature keeps on rising, widespread coral mortality will occur.
  • The temperate regions can still survive if the temperature increases. The temperate zones are where the widest seasonal changes occur. The vegetation can survive there.
  • The weather should be warm and moist during the early stage of growth of cereals. Hence, the cultivation of cereals would still be possible if the temperature rises.

Q. Which of the following are some important pollutants released by steel industry in India?

  1. Oxides of Sulphur
  2. Oxides of Nitrogen
  3. Carbon Monoxide
  4. Carbon Dioxide

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1, 3 and 4 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer: (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

  • The main pollutants are particulate matter, oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, and carbon monoxide along with high emissions of carbon dioxide.
  • Coke (mostly carbon), reacts with the blast air to produce carbon monoxide, which, in turn, reacts with the iron oxide to produce carbon dioxide and metallic iron.
National Steel Policy 2017
  • The National Steel Policy which was released in 2017 aims to attain a steel production capacity in India of 300 MT by 2030.
  • It has a long-term vision to enhance domestic consumption, produce high-quality steel and make the sector globally competitive.
  • The policy’s mission is to create an environment that enables:
    1. Self-sufficiency in the production of steel by giving policy
    2. support and guidance to MSME producers of steel, the private sector, central public sector enterprises and boost sufficient capacity additions.
    3. Development of internationally competitive manufacturing capabilities.
    4. Increase in the domestic demand for steel.
    5. Cost-efficient production and domestic availability of iron ore, coking coal and natural gas.
    6. Investment in overseas asset acquisitions of raw materials.
Green Steel
  • Green Steel is the manufacturing of steel without the use of fossil fuels.
    • This can be done by using low-carbon energy sources such as hydrogen, coal gasification, or electricity instead of the traditional carbon-intensive manufacturing route of coal-fired plants.
  • It eventually lowers greenhouse gas emissions, cuts costs and improves the quality of steel.
  • Low-carbon hydrogen (blue hydrogen and green hydrogen) can help reduce the steel industry’s carbon footprint.
    • National Hydrogen Energy Mission (NHM) capitalizes on hydrogen for a cleaner alternative fuel option.
  • Ways of Production:
    • Substituting the Primary Production Processes with Cleaner Alternatives:
      • Carbon captureutilization and storage (CCUS)
      • Replacing conventional sources of energy with low-carbon hydrogen
      • Direct electrification through electrolysis of iron ore
  • Significance:
    • The steel industry is the largest industrial sector in terms of intensive energy and resource use. It is one of the biggest emitters of carbon dioxide (CO2).
    • In view of commitments made at the Conference of the Parties (COP26) climate change conference, the Indian steel industry needs to reduce its emissions substantially by 2030 and hit net-zero carbon emissions by 2070.
  • Challenge:
    • At present, the country’s iron and steel sector is financially weak. However, Green Steel manufacturing is an expensive process involving high cost.