- India is 5th globally for installed hydroelectric power capacity. As of 31 March 2020, India’s installed utility-scale hydroelectric capacity was 46,000 MW or 12.3% of its total utility power generation capacity. Additional smaller hydroelectric power units with a total capacity of 4,683 MW (1.3% of its total utility power generation capacity) have been installed.
- The end of the 19th century saw the development of power in India. In 1897, electricity was commissioned in Darjeeling and in 1902, a Hydro Power station at Sivasamudram in Karnataka was commissioned.
- The Koyna Hydroelectric Project is the largest completed hydroelectric power plant in India. It has a power capacity of 1960 MW.
- The first hydroelectric power station was the Shivanasamudra hydroelectric power station.
- Tehri Hydro Electric Power plant is the highest hydroelectric power project in the country, also Tehri Dam is the tallest one in India. Now, NTPC has taken over the project (Since 2019).
- Srisailam Hydro Power Plant is the third largest working project in India.
- Nathpa Jhakri Hydroelectric Power Plant is the biggest underground hydroelectric power project in the country.
- Sardar Sarovar Dam is the world’s second-largest concrete dam.
- Hydropower projects are classified as large and small hydro projects based on their sizes. Different countries have different size criteria to classify small hydropower project capacity ranging from 10MW to 50 MW.
- In India, hydropower plants of 25MW or below capacity are classified as small hydro, which have further been classified into micro (100kW or below), mini (101kW-2MW), and small hydro (2-25MW) segments.
- Hydro Power was being looked after by the Ministry of Power prior to 1989 mainly with the help of State Electricity Boards. In 1989, plant capacity up to 3MW and below was transferred to the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), and as such 63 MW aggregate installed capacity of 3MW and below hydro projects came within the jurisdiction of MNRE.
- Many initiatives were taken by the Ministry since then for the promotion of small hydro which included implementation of a UNDP-GEF assisted Technical Assistance project entitled “Optimizing Development of Small Hydro Resources in Hilly Regions of India” and India-Renewable Resources Development Project with IDA credit line having interalia small hydro development component with a target of 100MW canal-based small hydro power projects through private sector participation.
- Subsequently, plant capacity up to 25MW and below was entrusted with the MNRE in November 1999.
- The estimated potential of 21135.37 MW from 7135 sites for power generation in the country from small/mini hydel projects is assessed by the Alternate Hydro Energy Centre (AHEC) of IIT Roorkee in its Small Hydro Database of July 2016.
- The hilly States of India mainly Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir and Uttarakhand, and constitute around half of this potential. Other potential States are Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, and Kerala.
List of Hydroelectric Power Plants in India
|States||River||Hydroelectric Power Plant|
|Andhra Pradesh||Krishna||Nagarjunasagar Hydro Electric Power plant|
|Andhra Pradesh||Krishna||Srisailam Hydro Electric Power plant|
|Andhra Pradesh, Orissa||Machkund||Machkund Hydro Electric Power plant|
|Gujarat||Narmada||Sardar Sarovar Hydro Electric Power plant|
|Gujarat||Tapi River||Ukai Dam|
|Himachal Pradesh||Baira||Baira-Siul Hydroelectric Power plant|
|Himachal Pradesh||Sutlej||Bhakra Nangal Hydroelectric Power plant|
|Himachal Pradesh||Beas||Dehar Hydroelectric Power plant|
|Himachal Pradesh||Sutlej||Nathpa Jhakri Hydroelectric Power plant|
|Jammu and Kashmir||Chenab||Salal Hydro Electric Power plant|
|Jammu and Kashmir||Jhelum||Uri Hydro Electric Power plant|
|Jharkhand||Subarnarekha||Subarnarekha Hydroelectric Power plant|
|Jharkhand||Barakar River||Maithon Hydel Power Station|
|Karnataka||Kalinadi||Kalinadi Hydro Electric Power plant|
|Karnataka||Sharavathi||Sharavathi Hydroelectric Power plant|
|Karnataka||Kaveri||Shivanasamudra Hydroelectric Power plant|
|Kerala||Periyar||Idukki Hydro Electric Power plant|
|Madhya Pradesh||Sone||Bansagar Hydroelectric Power plant|
|Madhya Pradesh||Narmada||Indira Sagar Hydro Electric Power plant|
|Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh||Rihand||Rihand Hydroelectric Power plant|
|Madhya Pradesh||Sindh River||Madikheda Dam|
|Madhya Pradesh||Narmada River||Bargi Dam|
|Maharashtra||Koyna||Koyna Hydroelectric Power plant|
|Maharashtra||Bhima River||Ujjani Dam, also known as Bhima Dam|
|Maharashtra||Godavari River||Jayakwadi Dam|
|Maharashtra||Mula River||Mulshi Dam|
|Manipur||Leimtak||Loktak Hydro Electric Power plant|
|Odisha||Sileru||Balimela Hydro Electric Power plant|
|Odisha||Mahanadi||Hirakud Hydro Electric Power plant|
|Odisha||Indravati River||Indravati Dam|
|Sikkim||Rangit||Rangit Hydroelectric Power plant|
|Sikkim||Teesta||Teesta Hydro Electric Power plant|
|Uttarakhand||Bhagirathi||Tehri Hydro Electric Power plant|
|Himachal Pradesh||Baspa||Baspa-II Hydro Electric Power plant|
|Himachal Pradesh||Satluj||Nathpa Jhakri Hydro Electric Power Plant|
|Himachal Pradesh||Beas||Pandoh Dam|
|Jammu and Kashmir||Chenab||Dulhasti|
|Uttar Pradesh||Rihand/Renuka||Obra Hydroelectric Power Plant|
|Arunachal Pradesh||Subansiri River||Lower Subansiri Hydroelectric Power Project|
|Meghalaya||Umiam River||Umiam-Umtru Hydroelectric Power Project|
Baira Siul Power Station
- Baira Siul Power Station is a major step towards harnessing the hydroelectric potential in Himachal Pradesh.
- It envisages utilization of the combined inflow of three tributaries of the Ravi river, namely Baira, Siul and Bhaledh for generation of power on a run-of-the-river basis.
- The installed capacity is 180 MW (3 x 60 MW). The annual designed energy from the project is 779.28 MU’s in a 90% dependable year with 95% availability of installed capacity.
- The project headquarter is at Surangani.
Machkund Hydro Electric Power plant
- Machkund Hydroelectric Project is located in the Machkund Dam of Koraput district in Odisha.
- The first unit of the power project is commissioned in 1959 and the total installed capacity of the power plant is 120 MWe. The hydroelectric project status of the power plant is Operational.
- Jalaput Dam
- The Jalaput Dam is a hydroelectric dam built on the Machkund River, a tributary of the Godavari River.
Balimela Hydro Electric Power plant
- Balimela Hydroelectric Project is erected in the Sileru River (a tributary of the Godavari river) of Balimela Town in the Malkangiri District of Odisha.
- Balimela Dam is in Malkangiri District, which is 35 kms, from the east of Malkangiri.
- Balimela Dam is a joint project of the Odisha and Andhra Pradesh Governments and the inflow into Balimela Reservoir is shared between the two States on a 50:50 basis.
Rangit Hydroelectric Power plant
- Rangit Power Station is located in the State of Sikkim having an Installed Capacity of 60 MW (3×20 MW).
- It uses the water of river Rangit for the generation of Power.
- It is a run-of-the-river power project.
- The beneficiary states of this power station are Sikkim, West Bengal, Orissa, Bihar, Jharkhand, and Damodar Valley Corporation.
Obra Hydroelectric Power Plant
- Obra Hydroelectric Power Plant is erected in the Obra village of Sonbhadra district in Uttar Pradesh.
- The water source for the generation of power in the plant is Rihand/Renuka River.
- Dam: Obra Dam
- Location of Dam: upstream of confluence of Rihand/Renuka river with Son river
- The power plant is owned by the Uttar Pradesh State Government and the operator of the plant is Uttar Pradesh Jal Vidyut Nigam Limited. The Beneficiary States of the power project are Uttar Pradesh and its nearby states.