• The Global Gender Gap Report was first published in 2006 by the World Economic Forum.
  • The Global Gender Gap Index is an index designed to measure gender equality.
  • The index is designed to “measure gender-based gaps in access to resources and opportunities in countries rather than the actual level of the available resources and opportunities in those countries.”
  • It is not necessarily true that highly developed countries should have higher scores.
  • The methodology used to determine index scores is designed in such a way as to count situations in which men are disadvantaged relative to women as “equal”.
  • There are four dimensions based on which the Global Gender Index evaluates the performance of the countries:
    • Economic Participation & Opportunity
    • Education Attainment
    • Health and Survival
    • Political Empowerment
  • The report measures women’s disadvantage compared to men and is not a measure of equality of the gender gap.
  • The highest possible score is 1.0 (equality or better for women, except for lifespan (106% or better for women) and gender parity at birth (94.4% or better for women) and the lowest possible score is 0.
World Economic Forum
  • It is the International Organization for¬†Public-Private Cooperation.
  • The Forum engages the¬†foremost political, business, cultural, and other leaders¬†of society to¬†shape global, regional, and industry agendas.
  • It was established in¬†1971 as a not-for-profit foundation¬†and is headquartered in¬†Geneva, Switzerland.
  • It is independent, impartial, and not tied to any special interests.
  • The report aims to serve ‚Äúas a compass to track progress on relative gaps between women and men on health, education, economy, and politics‚ÄĚ.
  • Some major reports published by WEF are:
    • Energy Transition Index.
    • Global Competitiveness Report.
    • Global IT Report
      • WEF along with INSEAD, and Cornell University publishes this report.
    • Global Gender Gap Report.
    • Global Risk Report.
    • Global Travel and Tourism Report.

Global Gender Gap Report 2022

  • Recently, the¬†World Economic Forum (WEF)¬†ranked¬†India 135 out of 146 countries¬†in its¬†Global Gender Gap (GGG) Index for 2022.
  • India‚Äôs¬†overall score has improved from 0.625 (in 2021) to 0.629,¬†which is its¬†seventh-highest score in the last 16 years.
    • In 2021,¬†India was ranked 140 out of 156 countries.
  • The¬†gender gap¬†is the difference between women and men as reflected in social, political, intellectual, cultural, or economic attainments or attitudes.
Global Gender Gap Report

What has India Fared on Four Key Dimensions?

  • Political Empowerment (Percentage of Women in Parliament and in Ministerial Positions):
    • India ranks the highest (48th¬†out of 146).
    • Notwithstanding its rank, its¬†score is quite low at 0.267.
      • Some of the best-ranking countries in this category score much better.
      • For instance,¬†Iceland is ranked 1 with a score of 0.874, and Bangladesh is ranked 9 with a score of 0.546.
  • Economic Participation and Opportunity (Percentage of women in labour force, Wage Equality for similar work, Earned income):
    • India ranks¬†a lowly 143 out of the 146 countries¬†in contention¬†even though its score has improved over 2021 from 0.326 to 0.350.
      • In 2021, India was pegged at¬†151 out of the 156 countries.
    • India‚Äôs score is¬†much lower than the global average,¬†and only Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan are behind India on this metric.
    • India ranks poorly among its neighbours and is behind¬†Bangladesh (71), Nepal (96), Sri Lanka (110), Maldives (117), and Bhutan (126). Only the performance of Iran (143), Pakistan (145), and Afghanistan(146) were worse than India in South Asia.
  • Educational Attainment (Literacy Rate and the Enrolment rates in Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary education):
    • India¬†ranks 107th¬†out of 146, and its score has¬†marginally worsened since last year.
      • In 2021, India was¬†ranked 114 out of 156.
  • Health and Survival (Sex ratio at birth and Healthy Life Expectancy):
    • India is¬†ranked last (146) among all the countries.
    • Its score hasn‚Äôt changed from 2021 when it was ranked 155th out of 156 countries.

Global Findings:

  • Ranking:
    • Iceland has retained its position as the world‚Äôs most gender-equal country,¬†among 146 nations on the index.
    • Finland, Norway, New Zealand, and Sweden are the¬†top five countries¬†on the list respectively.
    • Afghanistan is the worst-performing¬†country in the report.
  • Scenario:
    • Overall GGG is¬†closed by 68.1%.¬†At the current rate of progress,¬†it will take 132 years to reach full parity.
    • Although no country achieved full gender parity, the¬†top 3 economies closed at least 80% of their gender gaps,
      • Iceland (90.8%)
      • Finland (86%),
      • Norway (84.5%)
    • South Asia will take¬†the longest to reach gender parity,¬†which is estimated to be likely in 197 years.
  • Impact of Covid-19:
    • The progress toward gender parity has been halted and even reversed due to the¬†Covid-19 pandemic.
    • Women have borne the¬†brunt of the¬†recession, widely dubbed the ‘secession’,¬†largely because they work in sectors that were most impacted, such as retail and hospitality.
    • The pandemic recession has¬†hit women harder than the 2009 financial crisis¬†impacted male workers.

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