World Industries: Locational Patterns and Problems – UPSC

In this article, You will read World Industries: Locational Patterns and Problems – for UPSC (Economic Geography).

World Industries

  • The industries are not being settled in a random fashion but they are settled so to maximize their profit. Weber has suggested methods for the settlement of the industries. Moreover, there are some methods which help entrepreneurs to perceive their locational requirement.

Factors affecting the world industries location:

  • Nearness to consumer Market: population and income level of people are deciding factors of the market. India is the big market for industries, world industries are attracted to India because of the big market.
  • Cheap labor & skill labor source: industries are attracted to cheap labor areas. At present, Vietnam and Bangladesh are examples of attractive locations.
  • Labour law
  • Availability of raw material source: Some Industries are attracted to the raw material region to save transport costs. Industries in Bokaro, Rourkela, Bhilai in India are examples of favorable industrial locations in the raw material region. Mostly these industries are mineral processing-based industries.
    • Cement and brick-based industries
    • Smelting industries
    • Iron industries
    • Steel industries
    • Jute industries
    • Food processing industries
    • Textile industries etc
  • Historical factor
    • In all the developed countries, the pattern of manufacturing is strongly influenced by its past. In Europe, it evolved among communities that were each self-sufficing in most of the basic necessities of life. History may influence the industry in the following ways:
      • Inertia factor
      • Subsidiary industry – the new industry may use a by-product of the primary industry. Or furnish one of its essential requirements.
      • An old industry may gradually cease to carry on its old manufacture and take on a new, Like Oxford motors, Roll Royce.
      • The decline of industry led to creating a pool of unemployed labour as well as assets such as factory buildings, railway facilities, and transport nets.
  • Electricity (Cheap energy availability)
  • Availability of cheap means of transport: Industries along the coastal area and riverside are attracted to save transport costs.
  • Agglomeration area: In the agglomeration area cost of production is lower because of the following favorable conditions: 
    • Low transport cost 
    • Favorable government policy
    • Skill labor supply 
    • Infrastructure facilities
    • For example, silicon valley in the USA.
  • Geographical Conditions
  • Precipitation & Availability of water: for industries & for colonies.
  • Capital: huge capital is needed for establishing any industry, having a capitalist government in the country is an attractive destination for the industries.
  • Technology: To turn the resource into an asset with value.
  • Favorable Climate: some industries such as sugar, and textile industries are attracted in a humid climate region.
  • Vulnerability to Natural Resources
  • Government policies/regulations & Tax incentive by the government
  • Investment climate
  • Influence of pressure groups

Classification of Industries

  • Primary Industry: It is the simplest form of industry which consists of the first processing of raw materials and then producing industrial raw materials. Such industries include the smelting of bauxite to make aluminum.
  • Secondary Industry: Basically they include all reprocessing of partially manufactured goods to make more complex products, e.g. the use of cloth in clothing and the use of paper to make books. They are called heavy industries e.g. engineering, metal goods, heavy chemicals, shipbuilding, locomotives, and light industries.
  • Tertiary Industry: It consists of service industries such as trade, transportation, commerce, entertainment, personal services, tourism, and administration, and so on.
  • Quaternary industry: This group is involved in the research of science and technology and other high-level tasks. They include scientists, doctors, and lawyers.
  • Quinary Sector: Some consider these to be a branch of the quaternary sector, which includes the highest levels of decision-making in a society or economy. This sector would include the top executives or officials in such fields as government, science, universities, nonprofits, healthcare, culture, and the media. These are of a consultancy nature.

Major Industries

  • Basic Industries: There are some industries that produce raw materials for other industries and the iron and Steel industry. Its products are used in manufacturing machines, which in turn, are used to produce other types of products. The major producers of steel are CIS, U.S.A., Japan, and China.
  • Consumer goods Industries: Produce goods for final consumption e.g. edible oil, tea, coffee, bread biscuits, radio, television, etc.
  • Metallic Industries: Modern Industries owe their development to metallic industries. It includes nonferrous and ferrous industries copper, aluminum, etc. are called non-ferrous industries which do not have Iron content. Industries based on metals having Iron content are known as ferrous industries. For example Iron and Steel industry, machine and tools, motor cars, railways, engines, agricultural tools industries, etc.
  • Shipbuilding Industry: It is ideally situated in areas noted for the Iron and Steel Industry. Japan leads in the shipbuilding Industry.
  • Automobile Industry: The best locations in established industrial regions with a tradition of manufacturing components. General Motors, Ford and Chrysler of the U.S.A., British Leyland in the U.K., Volkswagen and Mercedes in Germany, Fiat of Italy, Datsun, Toyota, and Mazda of Japan are the major producers. U.S.A., Japan, Germany, France, and other European countries are the major car producers in the World.
  • Railway equipment and airplanes: It is located either in the heavy engineering districts close to the steel rolling mills or at local points of the national railway system. The United States is the world’s largest locomotive producer. The Industry is centered in Detroit, Chicago, New York, etc., and is highly capital-intensive. The U.S.A. produces the largest number of planes of which two-thirds are destined for export around the world. Seattle on the eastern front is the hub.
  • Chemical Industries: Chemicals are used widely such as in agriculture, the metallic industry, textiles, leather, paper, glass, ceramics, soap, and food processing industries. Chemical Industry is responsible for the development of the modern industry. Petrochemical industry based on petroleum as raw material, chemical fertilizers, paints and varnishes, plastics and some of the medicines are the products of the petrochemical industry. The main petrochemicals manufacturing countries are the U.S.A. Spain, Britain, and CIS.
  • Textile Industry: Modern, mechanized textile manufacturing was first developed in Britain. Textile manufacture using wool, cotton, silk, or linen according to the climatic zone was practiced all over the world. Textile industries are located mainly in relation to power and labor supplies. Cheap labor supplies were an important factor in the establishment of textiles industries in the Southern U.S.A. and in Japan.
  • Agro-based industries: Some of the industries utilize agricultural products as raw materials, for example, Jute, tea, sugar, cotton, and vegetable oil industries. The food processing industries of modern-day are also agro-based industries.
  • Forest-based industry: Paper and pulp industry, rayon, turpentine oil, and furniture industry are based on the raw materials obtained from the forests are known as forest industries.
IndustryLeading Countries
Iron and SteelUSA, Germany, Russia
Cotton textileUSA, Japan, Russia
RubberMalaysia, Indonesia & Thailand
Synthetic RubberUSA, Germany, Japan
Woolen textileAustralia, Russia
Silk textilesChina, Japan
MicroelectronicsJapan, USA
Ship BuildingUSA, Japan, Norway
Pulp & PaperCanada & USA
Newsprint PaperUSA & Canada
Petroleum ProductsUSA, Germany & Japan
Television ReceiversJapan, USA
CementRussia, Japan
Heavy ChemicalsUSA, Germany
Synthetic fibersUSA, Germany
AircraftUSA, Russia
LocomotivesUSA, United Kingdom
AluminiumCanada, United Kingdom
NewsprintCanada, USA
Wood PulpUSA, Canada
Sawn wood ProductsRussia, USA
CorkSpain, Portugal

Major Industrial Regions of the World

  • Moscow-Tula region of Russia – an industrial city and the administrative center of Tula Oblast, Russia; it is located 193 kilometers south of Moscow, on the Upa River. The region is rich in iron ore, clay, limestone, and deposits of lignite (coal). It is a prominent industrial center with metalworking, engineering, coal mining, and chemical industries.
  • Magnitogorsk – is an industrial city in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located on the eastern side of the extreme southern extent of the Ural Mountains by the Ural River. It was named for the Magnitnaya Mountain that was almost pure iron, a geological anomaly.  Huge reserves of iron ore in the area made it a prime location to build a steel plant. The city played an important role during World War II because it supplied much of the steel for the Soviet war machine and its strategic location near the Ural Mountains meant Magnitogorsk was safe from seizure by the German Army.
  • Donbas of Ukraine (Donets Basin) – is a historical, economic, and cultural region of eastern Ukraine. A coal mining area since the late 19th century, it has become a heavily industrialized territory suffering from urban decay and industrial pollution. The coal mines of Donbas are one of the most hazardous in the world due to enormous working depths (down from 300 to 1200 m) as a result of natural depletion, as well as due to high levels of methane explosion, coal dust explosion, and rockburst dangers.
  • Kuzbass region – located in southwestern Siberia, where the West Siberian Plain meets the South Siberian Mountains. It is one of Russia’s most important industrial regions, with some of the world’s largest deposits of coal. The south of the region is dominated by metallurgy and the mining industry, as well as mechanical engineering and chemical production.
  • Great lakes region – The Great Lakes region of North America is a bi-national, Canadian-American region that includes the eight U.S. states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin as well as the Canadian province of Ontario. Navigable terrain, waterways, and ports spurred an unprecedented construction of transportation infrastructure throughout the region. The region is a global leader in advanced manufacturing and research and development, with significant innovations in both production processes and business organization.
  • Appalachian region – is a 205,000-square-mile region that follows the spine of the Appalachian Mountains from southern New York to northern Mississippi. The Region’s economy, once highly dependent on mining, forestry, agriculture, chemical industries, and heavy industry, has become more diversified in recent times, and now includes a variety of manufacturing and service industries. Coal mining is the industry most frequently associated with Appalachia due in part to the fact that the region once produced two-thirds of the nation’s coal.
  • New England – is a region in the northeastern corner of the United States consisting of the six states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. It historically has been an important center of industrial manufacturing and a supplier of natural resource products such as granite, lobster, and codfish. Exports consist mostly of industrial products, including specialized machines and weaponry. About half of the region’s exports consist of industrial and commercial machinery, such as computers and electronic and electrical equipment. 
  • Yokohama region of Japan – Yokohama is the capital city of Kanagawa Prefecture and the second-largest city in Japan by population after Tokyo. It is a major commercial hub of the Greater Tokyo Area. The city has a strong economic base, especially in the shipping, biotechnology, and semiconductor industries.
  • Manchurian region of China – is a great industrial hub, with huge coal mines, iron- and steelworks, aluminum-reduction plants, paper mills, and factories making heavy machinery, tractors, locomotives, aircraft, and chemicals. The chief commercial port is Dalian. The great Manchurian plain crossed by the Liao and Songhua rivers is the only extensively level area. Fertile and densely populated, it has been a major manufacturing and agricultural center of China.
  • Sao Paulo region – is the largest city in Brazil & is considered the “financial capital of Brazil”, as it is the location for the headquarters of many major corporations and the country’s most renowned banks and financial institutions. Once a city with a strong industrial character, Sao Paulo’s economy has become increasingly based on the tertiary sector, focusing on services and businesses for the country.
  • Lorraine region of France – is situated in the northeast corner of France bordering Germany, Belgium, and Luxembourg. This region of France is a mostly rich farming country through which the rivers the Meuse and Moselle flow, rising onto the forested slopes of the Vosges. The region is known for its iron and steel industry and crystal works.
  • Ruhr and Silesia of Germany – Ruhr valley is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is Germany’s most densely populated region & is known for coal mining and steel industries.
  • West Coast region of Canada – Energy, and agriculture are Western Canada’s dominant industries – and this region, with only 10 million inhabitants, is one of the world’s largest net exporters of both energy and agricultural commodities. Approximate breakdown: Oil (13% of world reserves; 4% of world production) Uranium (8% of world reserves; 20% of world production), Potash (60% of world reserves; 30% of world production), Wheat, coarse grains, oilseeds (21% of the world export market for wheat; 10% for oilseeds).
world’s industrial regions upsc

Industrial Region: United States of America

  • The New England Regions.
  • The New York-Mid-Atlantic Region.
  • Mid-Western Region.
  • North-Eastern Region.
  • The Southern Region.
  • Western Region.
  • The Pacific Region.
industrial regions in usa

Industrial Region: Canada

  • Ontario and St. Lawrence Valley.
  • Prairie Region.
  • Pacific Coastal Region.

Industrial Region: United Kingdom

  • Midland.
  • Lower Scotland.
  • North-East Coast.
  • South Wales.
  • Lancashire.
  • London Basin.

Industrial Region: Germany

  • Rhine Industrial Region.
  • The Saar and Middle Rhine Industrial Region.
  • The Hamburg Industrial Region.
  • Berlin Industrial Region.
  • Leipzig Industrial Region.

Industrial Region: France

  • The Northern Industrial Region.
  • The Lorraine Industrial Region.
  • The Paris Industrial Region.

Industrial Region: Italy

  • The Northern Region (Lombardy, Piedmont, Liguria, etc.).
  • The Southern Region (Naples).

Other European Regions

  • Swiss Plateau in Switzerland,
  • Stockholm region in Sweden,
  • Rotter­dam-Amsterdam region in Holland,
  • Brussels-Antwerp industrial region in Belgium.

Industrial Region: CIS

  • The CIS is one of the mighty industrial powers of the world.
    • The Moscow-Tula Industrial Region.
    • The Southern Industrial Region.
    • The Caucasus Industrial Region.
    • The Ural Industrial Region.
    • The Volga Industrial Region.
    • The Kuznetsk Industrial Region.
    • The Central Asia Industrial Region.

Asian Regions: Japan

  • The Tokyo-Yokohama Region.
  • The Osaka-Kobe Region.
  • The Chukyo Region.
  • The North Kyushu Region.

Asian Regions: China

  • The Manchuria Region.
  • The Yantze Valley Region.
  • The North China Region.
  • The South China Region.
  • Other Regions (Canton, Swatow, and Minhow).

Asian Regions: India

  • The Calcutta Conurbation.
  • The Bombay-Poona Megalopolis.
  • The Ahmedabad-Vadodara Region.
  • The Southern Industrial Region.
  • The Damodar Valley Region.
  • The Capital Regions.
  • Other Regions (Kanpur, Lucknow, Meerut, Allahabad, Varanasi, Jalandhar, Patiala, Jaipur, Bilaspur, Cuttack, Bhubaneswar, Hyderabad, Trivandrum, Alleppey, Quilon, etc.)

Other Asian Industrial Zones

  • Besides these major industrial regions, there are some isolated and scattered industrial centres in Asia.
  • Among these notable are Seoul, Chongtu, Taejon, Taegu, Pohang, Ulsal, and Kwangju in South Korea, small islands like Hong Kong and Singapore are important.
  • Of the smaller centres Karachi in Pakistan, Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia, and Kuwait are important.
industrial regions in north america
major industrial regions of the world
european industrial regions
world industry - asian industrial regions upsc
Asian industrial regions
CountryIndustryCentreFeature
Plain of KwantoElectronics, Engineering products, Aeronautics Industry, Motor VehicleTokyo, Yokohama24% population, Japan’s biggest plain, Main Administration Centre
Nagoya and Kinki AreaIndustry (all types)Nagoya Osaka, Kobe, Kyoto
Nort Kyushu AreaIron & Steel, Engineering, Ship buildingYabat, Tobeta NagasakiShip building
CIS 
Moscow Region
Textile, Iron & Steel, Engineering, Electronics, Defence materialsMoscow, TulaExtended Market due to more population 
UkraineIron & Steel, Engineering, Ship building, chemicals, Sugar Industry Krivoi, Donetz, Kevi, OdessaOdessa hill is in Ukraine where Iron-ore and coal deposits found adequately
Ural AreaIron and Steel, Engineering, Electronics, Defence materialsMagneto-Metallic morsk, ChellabiniskMinerals abundance in Ural
North America 
Great Lake Area
Iron & Steel, Engineering Motor Vehicle, Meat IndustryChicago, Detroit Indiana, Harvour BuffalowChicago is the world’s longest Railway Junction and of pork large centre of wheat.
Eastern Coastal AreaIron & Steel, Engineering ElectronicsBaltimore Philadellphia, Reichmohat chmohatUSA’s largest Steel Industry centre, 5% population of the world concentrates
Applachian AreaIron & Steel, EngineeringPitsburg, YongstownFamous for ‘Steel City’  of the world
New Zealand AreaEngineering, Electronics, Woolen Industry, FisheriesBostonIt is the first Industrial region of USA. Availability of hydro-electricity, ports and coastal facilities
California AreaOil refinery, Aeronautics, film industry, Tourism industryLos AnglesSan FranciscoAvailability of Petrol, development of film and tourism due to natural beauty
Southern Part of USATextile Industry, Iron & Steel, Oil RefineryBurmingham, DallasThe largest Industrial area of Southern USA
South-eastern Canadian regionTextile and wool industry, Iron & Steel, Engineering and Paper IndustryMontreal, Ottawa, TorontoCoal and Iron-ore available
South-Western CanadaWine, Fisheries and Paper IndustryVancouverHere Ports are open for whole year
England
London Basin
Objects related with demandLondonInternational market and Metropolitan facilities
Southern Wales AreaShip building, Iron and Steel, ChemicalCardiffExport centre
North Eastern AreaIron and Steel, Engineering, ship buildingLeeds
LancashireCotton and woolen IndustryManchester and LiverpoolFacilities of ports and temperate weather
ScotlandShip building, woolen and cotton, Iron & Steel, Chemical, MedicinesGlasgow
Rea BasinIron & Steel, Engineering and clothes IndustryBurminghamSituated on Pennines hill
Germany
Berlin Area
Iron & Steel, wool industry, Textile, sports materials, ship-buildingBerlinPorts are open yearly due to North-Atlantic drift
Lawrence-Saar AreaIron and Steel, Chemical EngineeringLuxemburg BrusselsFamous for metal work (Famous for Diamond finishing)
France
Plan of Paris
Demand-related industry, Perfumes, Food processingParisAvailability of International & National market
UpperMotor vehicle, AeronauticsFrankfurtAbundance of hydro
Rhine ValleyPaper, Light Engineering objectsZurichelectricity ad forest produces
Italy
Po-Valley
Textile industry, MotorVehicle, industryMilan (Textiles)Turin (Vehicle)
South ScandinaviaWool Industry, Ship building, Iron & SteelPaper IndustryGutenberg StockholmsTaiga Forests.High quality Iron-orefrom Sweden
CentreMajor Industry
AhmedabadCotton Textile
Akron (Ohio, USA)Synthetic rubber
Anshan (China)Iron & Steel
Antwerp (Belgium)Shipbuilding, petrochemicals
Auckland (NZ)Dairy products
BakuOil refinery
Belfast (Northern Ireland)Ship building
Birmingham (England)Iron & steel
Cadiz (Spain)Cork
Cairo (Egypt)Cotton textiles
Chelyabinsk (Russia)Iron & Steel
Chiba (Japan)Marine engineering
ChicagoMeat Packing
Dallas (Texas, USA)Aircraft
Detroit (Michigan, USA)Automobiles
DhakaCarpet
Dresden (Germany)Optical Instrument
Dundee (Scotland)Cotton Textile
GlasgowShip building
GorkyEngineering
Halifax (Canada)Worsted textiles
Hamamatsu (Japan)Musical instruments
HamburgShip building
HamiltonIron & Steel
HavanaCigar
HongkongToys, light electronicindustries
HoustonOil refinery
Ivanovo (Russia)Cotton textiles
JohannesburgGold Mining
Kansas cityAircraft
Kiev (Ukraine)Engineering
KimberleyDiamond
KingstonLocomotive
LyonsSilk
Los AnglesAircraft
MagnitogorskIron and steel
ManchesterCotton textiles
Milan (Italy)Silk
MoscowCotton textiles andheavy Industries
MultanPottery
MunichLens Manufacturing
NagasakiShip building
NagoyaShip Building
New CastleIron & Steel
New YorkShip building,cotton textiles
OsakaCotton Textile
OttawaPaper
Pittsburg (USA)Iron & Steel
Quebec (Canada)Marine engineering
Ruhr Valley (Germany)Iron and steel
San FranciscoShip building
Sarnia (Canada)Oil refinery
Seattle (USA)Aircraft
Shanghai Cotton Textile
Sheffield (England)Cutlery
Shenyang (China)Iron & Steel
TokyoShip building &cotton textiles
Tula (Russia)Iron & Steel
VancouverOil refining &shipbuilding
ViennaGlass
VladivostokShip Building
Wellington (New Zealand)Dairy
Windsor (Canada)Automobile
Zurich (Switzerland)Light Engineering
Core industrial regions of the World
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thanku so much sir

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