NCERT Polity summary for UPSC: Class-6 (India Polity)

In this article, You are going to read the complete NCERT Polity Summary For UPSC: Class-6, India Polity (Notes).

Class-6: NCERT Polity Summary For UPSC

Chapter 1 – Understanding Diversity

Diversity in India: India is a country of vast diversity. People speak different languages, celebrate different festivals, and eat various types of food. Diversity is a reality created by individuals and groups from a broad spectrum of demographic and philosophical differences.

Factors Influencing Diversity: Historical and geographical factors are the two factors that influence the diversity of a region. The life of people near the sea is different from the people in a mountainous area.

Ladakh: Ladakh is a land with awesome physical features and is set in an enormous and spectacular environment. It is surrounded by the world’s mightiest mountain ranges, the Karakoram in the North and the Great Himalayas in the South.

Kerala: Kerala is located in the South-Western part of India. It is surrounded by sea on one side and hills on the other.

Unity in Diversity: India is a land of different religions and communities. There is a great diversity in our habits and customs and yet we all live together as Indians. “Unity in Diversity” has been the distinctive feature of our country.

Everyone on earth differs from each other with respect to aspects like looks, behavior, culture, religion, language, talent, etc. This means that there is diversity among people in these aspects. Diversity means the lack of uniformity and the sense of variety.

Inequality comes about among people when they have different access to resources and opportunities. The caste system, religion, financial well-being, education, etc. are various forms of inequality in society.

India is a country of several diversities. Since it is a very big country, people in different parts differ in their customs, language, habits, etc. These diversities arise from the fact that different regions have different histories and environments.

Despite the diversities listed above, there are similarities that unite us. We all are Indian and during the freedom struggle, the whole country came together to send away the British, Irrespective of their diverse
backgrounds. The Indian national flag is the most important national symbol and it reminds us of our unity in diversity.

Diversity: The sense of variety that exists in the traits, looks, behavior, culture, religion, language, abilities, resources, and opportunities related to different people is said to be diversity.

Inequality: The differences between two or more people that arise because of their abilities, resources, and opportunities, or their caste, etc. are termed as inequalities.

Habitat: The geographical area where a living being has adapted and lives comfortably is called the habitat of that living being.

Resources: Anything that can be of any use in any activity is said to be a resource.

Chapter 2 – Diversity and Discrimination

Difference and Prejudice: Differences can only be stated on the basis of a comparison or categorization. Whereas, prejudice is an unfavorable opinion or feeling, formed beforehand or without knowledge, thought, or reason.

Stereotypes: A “stereotype” is a generalization about a person or group of persons. We resort to prejudice by ascribing characteristics to a person based on a stereotype, without the knowledge of complete facts.
It reduces an individual to a rigid image and does not consider the fact that human beings are complex and multidimensional with unique attributes. Stereotypes suggest that people or groups of people are the same, although they are quite different.

Caste: A system of rigid social stratification characterized by hereditary status, endogamy, and social barriers sanctioned by customs, law, and religion.

It refers to any of the hereditary social classes or sub-classes of traditional Hindu society, stratified according to Hindu ritual purity, namely, the Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya, and Shudra castes.

Mahars: The Mahars are an important social group within the Indian state of Maharashtra and its surrounding states. A group of related endogamous castes, the Mahars are the largest Scheduled Caste group in Maharashtra.

Constitution: The fundamental law, written or unwritten, that establishes the character of a government by defining the basic principles to which society must conform.

How we live, what we speak, what we eat and wear, and what we play—all depend upon the historical background and geographical settings of the place we live in.

Each of the eight major world religions is followed in India. There are over 1600 mother tongues and over a hundred dance forms. Many of us are prejudiced about people that differ from us—like we think
our traits, religions, etc. to be the best and we automatically presume that those of others are not good. This is not a healthy trait of our diversity. In prejudice, we often hurt others.

We also tend to create stereotypes—that is, we form one particular image—positive or negative—about something, without pondering over it carefully. The stereotype may be with respect to religion, place of origin or residence, sex, race, background, etc.
When people act in a way that is driven by their prejudices or stereotypes, discrimination happens. In this, we prevent people from using their rights just because we think they are inferior.

Castes were created as a result of discrimination on the basis of the occupation of people. Rules were created by the people who called themselves the upper caste. The group at the bottom of the caste ladder were labeled as “untouchable”.

The “untouchables” were not allowed to take on work, other than what they were meant to do. People maintained a distance from them. They were called ‘Dalits’.

Many Dalits and women came forward to demand equality with other castes and men, respectively. When India became independent, the Constitution was made which laid down laws for equality among all Indians.

Dr. Ambedkar, a Dalit himself who had suffered a lot, is considered the father of the Constitution.

Prejudice: The tendency to judge other people negatively or consider them inferior is said to be prejudice.

Stereotype: When one forms a particular image—positive or negative— about something, without thinking over it carefully, this is said to be the stereotype. It may be with respect to one’s religion, place of origin or residence, sex, race, background, etc.

Discrimination: When people act in a way that is due to their prejudice or stereotype, then discrimination takes place: For example, not sharing the same seat with a person of another caste is a form of discrimination.

The Constitution: A document of national importance, that laid out the rules by which the nation would function, is the Constitution: It was prepared after India got independence.

Untouchability: A form of discrimination in which a particular caste of people is considered impure by “upper-caste” people is called untouchability. That caste is called “untouchables”. This form of
discrimination should be discouraged.

The Preamble: The first page of the Constitution that presents a “summary” of the rules by which that nation must function, is called the Preamble.

The extract is from “Dr. B.R. Ambedkar’s Writings and Speeches” (ed. Vasant Moon). It tells the story of a day when Ambedkar and his companions were discriminated against just because they were untouchables. The sense of discrimination was so much that the station master who met them refused to entertain them once he got to know their caste.

Later, when the bullock- cart drivers came to know this, even they refused to carry them and afford to get “polluted” for even double the price. This is the first-hand experience of Ambedkar, who later came up as one of the greatest leaders of India.

Chapter 3 – What is Government

Government: Government is “the organization, that is the governing authority of a political unit”, “the ruling power in political society” and the apparatus through which a governing body functions and exercises authority”.

Levels of Government: India is a representative democracy where people are eligible ‘to vote, elect representatives and participate in the decisions making the process. The government works at different levels: national, state, and local levels.

National Level: It refers to the area of the government which is concerned with national issues such as taxation, defense, international relations, and trade.

State Level: Each of the State Governments has its own police force, education system, and road laws.

Local Level: The local governments are known as Panchayats in rural areas and Municipal Corporations, Municipalities, and Nagar Panchayats in urban areas.

Laws and the Government: A rule of conduct established and enforced by the authority, legislation, or custom of a given community, state, or nation is called law. It is both the responsibility of the government and citizens to uphold the integrity of laws.

Types of Government: Governments can be classified into several types. Some of the most common types of governments are democracy, monarchy, etc.

Democracy: It is a form of government-run by elected representatives who hold the decision making power. The word ‘democracy’ originates from the Greek words ‘demos’ and ‘Kratos’, meaning “rule of the people.” It can be classified into direct and indirect democracy.

Monarchy: A monarchy refers to the rule by a king or queen. Sometimes, a king is called an “emperor”. It is a government with a hereditary head of the state. It can be classified into two types, i.e., absolute and
constitutional monarchy.

Representative Democracy: The type of democracy in which the citizens delegate authority to their elected representatives.

Women’s Suffrage: A Movement started in the early 20th century vigorously for many years, demanding equality with men and the right to vote.

Franchise: A privilege or right officially granted to a person or a group by a government, especially the constitutional or statutory right to vote.

Each country needs a government to make important decisions and function well. The decisions may be economic, educational, or social.

The government also takes care of international boundaries and relations with other countries. It is responsible for the transport facilities and health facilities for citizens.

The government works at different levels—like, local level, state level, national level.

The government makes laws and every citizen is supposed to follow them. Laws need to be enforced for the proper function of the government.

Citizens can also take the help of law if they are dissatisfied with something.

There are some types of government, like the democratic, monarch, etc. In a democracy (like India), the people elect the government themselves by voting in the election. In a monarchy, the king/queen has the power to make decisions and no one from the citizens can* object to them.

The basic idea of democracy is that people rule themselves by taking part in the law-making.

Nowadays, democratic governments are better known as ‘representative democracies’. People do not participate directly. They choose their representatives during elections and these representatives come together for the decision-making process. All adults in the country are eligible to vote according to the universal adult franchise. There are instances in history when governments did not allow women, the
poor people, and the uneducated to vote. But when India got independence, the universal adult franchise was enforced.

Government: The system or machinery present in each country in order to make decisions for the proper running of the country is called the government.

Laws: The rules laid down by the government for the proper functioning of the country are called laws.

Democracy: A system of government in which the people (citizens) of the country choose their leaders to rule is called democracy. The elected government is answerable to its people for its decisions.

Monarchy: A system of government that is run by a king/queen on a hereditary basis and where people do not get their say in decision-making is called a monarchy. The king/queen is said to be the monarch.

Elections: The process in which citizens of a democratic country cast their votes for the leaders of their choice is called the election. The elected leaders form a government later.

Representative Democracy: A form of democracy in which people do not elect the government directly but only choose their representative, who collectively form a government is called representative democracy. Most democracies are representative in nature.

Universal Adult Franchise: The rule that allows all adults in the country, irrespective of caste, creed, gender, literacy, occupation, etc., to vote and take part in the elections, is the universal adult franchise.

Chapter 4 – Key Elements of a Democratic Government

Role of the People: The people play an important role in the proper functioning of a democratic government, which includes elections as well as the working and decision-making responsibility of the government.

Election: In a democracy, people cast their votes to elect their representatives, who take decisions on behalf of the people. The government is elected for a period of five years in India.

Social Movements: People express their views in many ways like dhammas, strikes, rallies, and signature campaigns, e.g., Activists of the Bhartiya Kisan Union staged a demonstration at the Mini Secretariat to
protest against the power shortage during the paddy transplantation season.

Recognition to Minority: The democratic character of the government of a country would be stronger if the minority people (Dalits, Adivasis, Women) participate in the process of the government. The minority
communities and Adivasis participated in the working of the government by demanding the inclusion of the Santhali language in the Constitution of India.

Role of the Government: Suppose, if a religious procession and celebrations lead to conflicts, the government, particularly the police plays an important role in getting the representatives of the concerned community to meet and try to arrive at a solution.

Equality and Justice: The key idea of a democratic government is its commitment to equality and justice. The minority communities were denied of many facilities. Dr. Ambedkar realized that such practices must not continue and justice can be achieved only if people are treated equally.

In South Africa, we can find people of several races — black native people, whites, and Indians.

The country was governed by apartheid laws. Apartheid means separation on the basis of race.

South African people were divided into white, black, Indian, and colored races, and apartheid laws prevented them from getting mixed with each other.

Non-white had to face several distinctions. They were not allowed to vote. Neither they availed other basic privileges.

Hence, the African National Congress started a struggle against the apartheid system under the leadership of Nelson Mandela. Nelson Mandela fought for several years. Finally, South Africa became a
democratic country in 1994. Now, there is no apartheid there and people of all races are considered equal.

There are fixed periods for the governments that are elected. In India, once the government is elected, it can stay in power for five years. Thus, people participate in the process of government by using their voting rights.

People also participate by taking an interest in the working of the government and by criticizing it when required.

People express their views against the government’s wrong decisions by holding dharnas, rallies, strikes, signature campaigns, etc.

People also participate by organizing themselves into social movements and seek to challenge the government and its functioning. The government plays a major role in resolving the conflicts if they occur among people of different cultures, religions, regions, etc.

Religious processions and celebrations can sometimes lead to conflicts. Rivers can also become a source of conflict between states.

Equality and justice are key elements of democracy.

The practice of untouchability is now banned by law in order to bring equality and justice in society.

The government also takes steps to bring girl children on an equal level with a boy child.

Apartheid: It refers to the system under which separation is practiced on the basis of race.

Race: One of the main groups that humans can be divided according to their physical differences, for example, the color of their skin.

Representative: The person elected through people’s voting right to take part of the system of governance.

Participation: People’s involvement in the process of government.

Conflict: Differences between people of various castes, cultures, or creed. The conflict may arise in the name of region, religion, language, etc.

Resolution: Solution of the conflict.

Chapter 5 – Panchayati Raj

Gram Sabha: It is a body consisting of persons registered in the electoral rolls at the village level within the area, of the Panchayat. The presiding officer of the Panchayat is known as the Sarpanch, and the Pradhan a Mukhiya.

Recommendations of the Gram Sabha are binding on the Gram Panchayat.

The key roles entrusted to the Gram Sabha are micro-planning, the social audit of Panchayat functioning, ratification of Panchayat accounts, balance sheets, identification and approval of beneficiaries, and supervisory and regulatory functions.

The institution of the Gram Sabha is very important as it gives an opportunity to each and every voter of the Gram Panchayat at the local level to take part in the decision-making process of the decentralized governance as well as in planning and development.

Gram Panchayat: It is the executive wing of the Gram Sabha.

Panchayat Samiti: It is an executive body. The work of the Gram Panchayat has to be approved by the Gram Sabha. The Gram Panchayat is answerable to the Gram Sabha.

The Gram Sabha is a meeting where people directly participate and seek answers from their elected representatives.

Every village Panchayat is divided into wards, i.e. smaller areas.

Each ward elects a representative who is known as the ward Member or Panch.

The Gram Sabha members elect a Sarpanch who is the Panchayat President.

The Ward Panchs and the Sarpanch together form the Gram Panchayat.

The term of Gram Panchayat is five years.

The Gram Panchayat and the Gram Sabha have one common secretary. The secretary is appointed by the government. It is the secretary who calls the meeting of the Gram Sabha and Gram Panchayat.

One of the main functions of the Gram Sabha is to prevent the Gram Panchayat from doing wrong things.
The Gram Panchayat is responsible for the implementation of the developmental programs for the villages that come under its jurisdiction.

The Panchayati Raj System is a process through which people participate in their own government.

The Panchayati Raj System is the first tier or level of democratic government. It extends to two other levels— Block level (Janpad Panchayat or the Panchayat Samiti), District Panchayat (Zila Parishad).

Gram Panchayat: It is the primary unit of governance in the Panchayati Raj System. It consists of a Panchayat President and its members elected by the people through a general election.

Gram Sabha: Gram Sabha is a meeting where people directly participate and seek answers from their elected representatives.

Sarpanch: He is the Panchayat President.

Panchayati Raj System: It is a process through which people participate in their own government.

Chapter 6 – Rural Administration

Quarrel in the Village: Mohan noticed that Raghu had shifted the bund but Raghu refused to accept and instead he beats Mohan. Mohan’s neighbors helped him and he was provided first aid.

Gram Sabha: The Panchayati Raj, through the Gram Sabha, can solve land dispute problems, instead of taking the issues to the police station.

Work at the Police Station: In the police station, Mohan met the Station House Officer and said that he wanted to give the complaint in writing. At first, the S.H.O. refused, but later, he agreed that he would register the case. The S.H.O promised that he would send a constable to investigate the incidence.

Patwari’s Duties: They include conducting land surveys, field supervision, and reporting the crime to the police. The role of the Patwari is important in an investigation. The record of the Patwari helps the police to find out which person has extended his bund from the original boundary.

Revenue Department: Keeping track of all these is the work of the revenue department. Senior people in this department supervise the Patwari’s work.

Local Administration: All the States of India are divided into districts. For managing matters relating to land, these districts are further subdivided. These sub-divisions of a district are known by different names such as Tehsil, Taluka, etc.

At the head is the District Collector and under him are the Revenue Officers, also known as the Tehsildars. Tehsildars have to hear disputes and supervise the work of the Patwari and ensure that records are properly kept and land revenue is collected. They make sure that farmers get a copy of their land records. Students can obtain their caste certificates, etc from them as well.

A New Law: The Hindu Succession Amendment Act (2005) came into force from September 2005. The Government of India has issued a notification to this effect.

Hindu Succession Amendment Act (2005): This Act has been passed to remove gender discriminatory provisions in the Hindu Succession Act, 1956 and gives the following rights to daughters under Section 6:
The daughter of the coparcener (joint-heir) by birth becomes a coparcener by right in the same manner as the son. The daughter has the same rights in the coparcener property as she would have had if she had been a son. In the new law, sons, daughters and their mothers can get an equal share of the land.

Tehsildar: Tehsildar is a revenue administrative officer in charge of obtaining taxation from a Tehsil. A Tehsildar is also called Patwari.

Every police station has an area that comes under its control. All persons in that area can report cases or inform the police about any occurrence like theft, accident, fight, etc.

The police of that area then inquire, investigate, and take action. Thus, the police maintain law and order in the area. Land disputes are common features of the villages. Hence, it is essential to maintain records so that conflicts may be avoided. Here, comes the role of the Patwari.

Patwari is the person whose main task is to measure land and keep land records. He also updates these records. Each Patwari is responsible for a group of villages.

The Patwari is also responsible for organizing the collection of land revenue from the farmers and providing information to the government about the crops grown in this area.

The revenue department of the government plays a major role in this direction. Senior people in this department supervise the Patwari’s work. For managing matters relating to land, districts are sub-divided, known as sub-divisions.

These sub-divisions of a district are known by different names such as tehsil, taluka, etc.

The District Collector is at the head. The revenue officers known as Tehsildars work under him.

Hindu Succession Amendment Act was passed in 2005. According to this Act sons, daughters and their mothers can get an equal share in the land.

Police Station: It is a place where people register their complaints. Every police station has an area that comes under its control. All persons in that area can report cases or inform the police about any theft, accident, fight, injury, or illegal occurrence, etc.

S.H.O: Station House Officer who is the person-in-charge of the police station.

Patwari: One whose job is to measure land and keep land records.
Tehsildar: He is the revenue officer working under the District Collector.

Chapter 7 – Urban Administration

Ward Councillor:

  • The Ward Councillors are responsible for the construction of hospitals.
  • They are elected by the people living in that ward/area.
  • Groups of Councillors make decisions on policy-making.
  • Committees of Ward Councillors look after water, garbage collection, and street lighting.

Duties of the Ward Councillors:

  • Ward Councillors make the budget.
  • They look into the demands of their respective Wards.
  • They assign the task of implementation to the administrative staff.

Administrative Staff:

  • Ward people can approach Ward Councillors regarding their problems, within a Ward. Members of the Councillor Committees decide on various issues.
  • Commissioner and the administrative staff implement the issues.
  • Commissioner and administrative staff are appointed people.
  • Ward Councillors are elected.

Municipal Council:

  • It is an Administrative Department in the cities.
  • It supervises the Division of work in different departments.
  • It includes the Departments of water, garbage collection, construction of roads, sanitation, etc.

Municipal Corporation:

  • Takes care of street lights, garbage collection, water supply, etc.
  • Creates awareness about epidemics such as malaria, dengue, etc.
  • Teaches people about preventive measures to avoid diseases.
  • Runs schools, hospitals, and dispensaries. Community Protest:
  • Ward Community can submit its petition to the Ward Councillor.
  • Collective action taken is by the Ward Engineer and Ward Council.
  • Petitions are forwarded to the Municipal Corporation Office.
  • Municipal Corporation solves the issues.

Municipality: A place with their own local government: a city, town, or another area.

In the city, there is the Municipal Corporation that takes care of street lights, garbage collection, water supply, keeping the streets and the markets clean.

The Municipal Corporation is also responsible for ensuring that diseases do not break out in the city.

In smaller towns, these works are done by a little bit smaller organization known as a Municipal Council.

The city is divided into different wards and ward councilors get elected. The complicated decisions that affect the entire city are taken by groups of Councillors who form committees to decide and debate issues.

When the problems are within the ward then the people who live in the ward can contact their Councillors.

After the decisions taken by Councillor’s Committees and the Councillors, the Commissioner and the administrative staff implement them.

The Commissioner and the administrative staff are appointed while the Councillors are elected.

As the city is so large, the work here is divided into different departments, such as the water department, the garbage collection departments, sanitation department, etc.

Municipal Council: The organization that looks after the welfare of small towns is known as the Municipal Council.

Municipal Corporation: The organization that takes care of big cities is known as Municipal Corporation.

Councillor: The elected representative of the ward.

Chapter 8 – Rural Livelihoods

Different Occupations: People in this village are involved in different professions such as blacksmiths, teachers, washermen, weavers, barbers, mechanics, shopkeepers, and traders.

Shops: Kalpattu village has a variety of small shops such as tea-shops, grocery stores, barbershops, cloth shops, tailor shops, fertilizers, and seed shops.

Life of a Woman Farmer: The woman, Thulasi works in the farmland of Ramalingam and does various work like transplanting paddy, weeding, and harvesting. She earns 40 rupees daily. She also does household tasks like cooking, cleaning, and washing clothes.

Being in Debt: Farmers borrow money to fulfill the basic needs of the farming land. Sometimes, they are unable to return the loan due to the failure of monsoon, which results in debt and finally the major cause of distress.

Farmers: In Kalpattu village, there are laborers and farmers. All of them depend on farming. Big farmers cultivate their land and sell their products in the market. Some people in the village depend upon a forest, animal husbandry, dairy produce, fishing, etc.

Sources of Livelihood: Farming and collection of mahua, tendu leaves, honey, etc. from the forest are the important sources of livelihood.

Rural Livelihood: People in rural areas earn their living in various ways. They undertake in farming or non¬farming activities. However, some people do not find work to keep them employed throughout the year.

Pudupet: People earn their living by fishing in the sea in this area. Catamarans (fishing boats) are used for fishing. They return to the coast with their catch to sell in the market. Fishermen usually take loans from banks to purchase catamarans, nets, and engines.

There are different ways in which people earn their living in villages. Village people are engaged in both farm activities and non-farm works, such as making utensils, baskets, etc.

There are agricultural labourers as well as big farmers.

Working on farms involves operations such as preparing the land, sowing, weeding, and harvesting of crops.

In India, nearly two out of every five rural families are agricultural laborer families.

The members of these families usually work on other people’s fields to earn a living.
In India, 80 percent of farmers belong to this group. Only 20 percent of India’s farmers are well-off.

Many people in rural areas depend upon collection from the forest, animal husbandry, dairy produce, fishing, etc.

Rural livelihoods: Different ways of earning living in rural areas.

Pesticide: A chemical used for killing pests, especially insects.

Migration: The movement of a large number of people from one place to another to find jobs.

Harvest: The act of cutting and gathering crops.

Terrace Farming: This is a type of farming in which the land on a hill slope is made into flat plots and carved out in steps. The sides of each plot are raised in order to retain water. This allows water to stand in the field, which is suitable for rice cultivation.

Chapter 9 – Urban Livelihoods

Vendors and Government Measures: There are some shops on the pavement. Vendors sell things prepared at home like snacks or food. Street vending is an obstruction to traffic. The government has introduced measures to reduce the number of vendors. Hawking zones have been suggested for towns and cities.

Market: Markets in the cities are crowded during the festivals. There are different shops selling sweets, toys, clothes, footwear, utensils, electronic goods, etc.

Business Persons: In cities, there are people who own shoes in various markets. Harpreet, a businesswoman, opened readymade showrooms. She buys the materials from different cities of India like Mumbai, Ahmedabad, etc. and some items even from foreign countries.

Showrooms: Businesspersons are not employed by anyone but they employ a number of workers as supervisors and helpers. They get a license from the Municipal Corporations to open showrooms.

Shops in Market Place: Medical clinics are also set up in the market place. The dental clinic helps people to solve tooth problems. Next to the dental clinic is a cloth showroom with three floors.

Factory area: A factory area consists of small workshops. In one of the factories, people work on sewing machines and stitch clothes. In another section, the stitched clothes are stacked. Many women work as tailors in the export garment unit. Factory Workshop Area: Some groups of people stand in a place called
“labor chowk”. They are the daily wage laborers who work as helpers to masons. They also work at construction sites and lift loads or unload trucks in the market.

Salespersons: Sales-persons work is to get orders from shopkeepers and collect payments from them. Each sales-person is responsible for a particular region.

Marketing Manager: A Marketing Manager’s task is to manage the marketing resources of a product or business. He can be an in-charge of a single product or brand or can be a General Manager responsible for a broad array of products and services.

Urban life is different from rural life.

People of urban areas are engaged in different activities. Some are rickshaw pullers, some are vendors, some are business persons, some are shopkeepers, etc. These people work on their own. They are not employed by anyone.

There are almost one crore street vendors in the country working in urban areas.

In the urban market, one can find a variety of shops—shops selling sweets, toys, clothes, footwear, utensils, etc. There are garment showrooms too.

There are several business persons in the market who manage their own shops or business. They are not employed by anyone. But they do employ a number of other workers as supervisors and helpers.

The urban market has small offices and shops that provide services, such as banks, courier services, and others.

A number of daily wage laborers can be found in the city. They work as helpers to mansions.

Several urban people are engaged in factories, such as garment factories.

In garment factories, most workers are usually employed on a casual basis. They are required to come as and when the employer needs them.

Jobs on a casual basis are not permanent. There is no job security. Workers are expected to work very long hours. They do not get any facility.

There are many workers in the city who work in offices, factories, and government departments where they are employed as regular and permanent workers.

Permanent and regular workers avail several benefits such as saving for old age, holidays, medical facilities, etc.

In big cities, working in call centers has become a new form of employment.

Call centers are generally set up as large rooms with work stations that include a computer, a telephone set, and supervisor’s stations. India has become a major center not only for Indian companies but also
foreign companies.

Vendor: One who sells things of daily use by going door to door.

Urban areas: Towns and cities.

Businessperson: One who earns his livelihood by engaging himself in some business.

Employer: One who gives the job to someone.

Casual worker: One who is engaged in temporary work.

Labour chowk: A place where daily wage laborers gather together with their tools and wait for people to come and hire them for work.

Call center: It gives a new form of employment to the people of big cities. It is a centralized office that deals with problems and questions that consumers/customers have regarding goods purchased and services like
banking, ticket booking, etc.

Hawker: One who sells things by going from place to place asking people to buy them.

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Amit pandey

Dear team please provide pdf. Of summary of ncert. On telegram I hve requested to join..

Satym

Class 7 ncert polity link please of noted

Jeena Jose

It helped me a lot.Thanku for such an amazing work 🙏

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