The concept of internal security may seem a modern construct but, unlike the common wisdom, it is as old as the construct of states. The earliest treatise of statecraft – Arthashashta by Kautilya – had references to management of security of state from internal as well as external threats. Kautilya in his Arthashahtra places threats into four categories:

  • Internal
  • External
  • Internally aided external
  • Externally aided internal

In modern times, the form and number of threats to a country’s security internal as well as external – has become more challenging than ever. It has become very important for a country to maintain its sovereignty in international statecraft as well as to ensure free will of the citizens.

A country has to employ a suitable mix of policies with respect to economic, strategic , military and diplomatic powers at its disposal in order to secure the interest of the country and its citizens.

Challenges to internal security of India are numerous. The extent and scope of threats are complex, varied and vast. No other country in the world confronts so many threats, with so much intensity, at the same time .

Overall, more than 50 per cent of India is said to be affected by one or the other of these threats, which are not just ‘law and order’ problems. They have external dimension falsifying conventional wisdom that internal security threats are caused mainly by internal sources.

Internal and External Security

The aspects of internal and external security threats are so inter-twinned that it is difficult to differentiate between the two. However, some broad difference could be considered.

  • Internal security is the security of a country within its borders. This implies maintenance of peace and law and order, and upholding the sovereignty of the country within its territory.
  • Internal security is different from external security to the extent that external security is security against aggression by a foreign country. External security is solely the responsibility of the armed forces of the country, while internal security comes under the purview of the police, which can be supported by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF), if required.
  • In India, the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) takes care of internal security, while external security comes under the Ministry of Defence. In many countries, MHA is also called the Ministry of Internal Affairs or Ministry of Homeland Security.
External Security ThreatsInternal Security Threats
Threat originates from foreign soilThreat originates from within country’s territory
Aggression by foreign countryInternal disturbances and law and order problems
These impact the sovereignty of the countryImpact credibility of the government
These affect international relationsAffect relationship of the citizens with government
Mainly dealt by Armed forces and DiplomatsDealt by Ministry of Home Affairs and State Police

What is National Security?

Today’s definition of security acknowledges the political, economic, environmental, social and human thread, among other strands that impact the concept of security. It is the concern for security of the lowest common denominator of every society, namely the ‘human being’, which has resulted in the development of the concept of ‘human security’, with a focus on the individual and the people. Therefore, the definition of security is related to the ability of the state to perform the function of protecting the well-being of its people. Internal security has been defined as the process of keeping peace and maintaining safety within a nation or state.

National Security, in a more traditional sense, refers to the preservation of the state, its territorial integrity, political institutions, and national sovereignty from physical threats. But in the modern times the definitions have broadened to include following facets:

  • Economic threats: They indirectly threaten the developmental dynamics by disturbing the economic processes.
  • Technology driven threats: Threats like cyber-terrorism, space warfare etc. have assumed increased importance in recent times.
  • Health Security: Diseases like Tuberculosis, Malaria and HIV are seen as threats to human security because of the enormous loss of life they cause.

The former Prime Minister, Dr. Manmohan Singh, in 2005 identified- terrorism, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, low intensity conflicts, and threats to the security of sea-lanes as threats to national security.

A close examination of the threats to national security will reveal that each one of them is connected to one or more other threats. For example, the threat of terrorism is connected to the threat of proliferation of arms including weapons of mass destruction. The threat to the security of our sea-lanes is connected to the threat to energy security.

The government of the day is duty bound to protect its boundaries as well as maintain law and order. Safe internal security scenario is very important for growth and development of the country. This aspect was highlighted by the former PM of India, Dr. Manmohan Singh, who said: “…Without effective law and order, economic development would be impossible. We must not, therefore, neglect this aspect.”

The challenges posed by Internal Security scenario are priority for the nation as emphasised many a times by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. Addressing the Inter-State Council meeting, in 2016, the Prime Minister Narendra Modi told the Chief Ministers that “we should focus on how we can make our country prepared to counter challenges to our internal security”. He asked states to focus on intelligence sharing which will help the country stay “alert” and “updated” in countering internal security challenges.

Constituents of Internal Security

There are myriad attributes that constitute internal security of the country. These could be enumerated as:

  • Maintenance of Law and Order: Ensuring law and order is the prime responsibility of any government to make sure ‘Rule of law’ prevails and law-abiding citizens are not aggrieved in anyway.
  • Safeguarding Sovereignty of the Nation: The challenges posed by the state and non-state actors in the form of terrorism, naxalism etc, need to be neutralised in order to protect the sovereignty of the nation.
  • Ensuring Domestic Peace and Tranquillity: Incidents such as Communal violence, Ethnic clashes, Mob violence etc. need to be checked to ensure peace and tranquillity in the nation.
  • Equality: Article 14 of the Constitution of India entails a responsibility on the state to ensure equality before law and equal protection of law, state should ensure such rights are protected.
  • Freedom from Fear: There should be an environment where people can express their views and thoughts without fear. Dissent is important in democracy and differences between sections of people could be resolved through dialogues.
  • Non-discrimination: There should be no discrimination (which includes exploitation and oppression) of any strata of citizens at the hands of State or society at large. The weak needs to be protected and should enjoy freedom and rights.
  • Social Harmony and Fraternity: Social harmony between various castes, communities, regions etc. is imperative to prevent and resolve internal security threats.

Factors Contributing to Internal Security Challenges

Former Prime minister of India, Dr. Manmohan Singh once said: “India is unique and a land of contradictions”. These contradictions interact and give rise to factors that contribute to the internal security problems in India.

These factors could be enumerated as:

  • Poverty
  • Unemployment
  • Inequitable Growth
  • Resource Distribution
  • Corruption
  • Nexus between the criminals, police and politician in organised crime
  • Lack of development
  • Prolonged Judicial System
  • Poor Conviction Rate
  • Caste consciousness
  • Communal Discord
  • Hostile Neighbours
  • Living in isolation
  • Difficult Terrain in some regions

Poverty

  • There is a positive correlation between poverty and law and order problems.
  • Numerous studies demonstrate that declining national income, low GDP per capita, primary commodity or natural resource dependence, and slow economic growth increase the risk and length of civil conflict.
  • Widespread poverty may also weaken state capacity to provide essential human services, and thereby, render states more vulnerable to predation by terrorist networks.
  • Citizens living in deprived environments become disenchanted with the political and administrative systems.
  • There is no surprise that the some of the most backward and poor districts in India are grappling with the menace of Naxal violence.

Unemployment

  • Unemployment leads to energy of the work-force go unutilised which could have been used for the economic development instead. In India, unemployment rate hover around 5%.
  • The more worrying sign is the quality of jobs on offer to graduates, about 60 per cent of 8 lakh engineering graduates remain unemployed.
  • When the aspirations of the youth are not met, they get disgruntled, lose faith in the Government and may turn to use disruptive tendencies.
  • The volatile nature of the youth may lead to expression of anger, frustration and may cause social unrest.

Inequitable Growth

  • Income of Indians is becoming more and more inequitable.
  • The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has warned that both India and China face the social risk of growing inequality.
  • India’s Gini coefficient rose to 0.51 by 2013, from 0.45 in 1990, mainly on account of rising inequality between urban and rural areas as well as within urban areas.
  • The richest 1% of Indians now own around 33% of wealth. These indicators highlight that growing inequality is a reality in India and it is a cause of concern, as citizens’ discontent may become challenge to the Government vis-a-vis internal security.

Resource Distribution

  • Resource distribution is based on the principle of common good. Fruits of economic growth when distributed unevenly, only selected few reaping the benefits, and a large population gets left behind in the process.
  • India has chosen the policy of increasing the economic growth after independence. It was envisioned that the increased development will uplift the poor and destitute from the lower pedestal to higher through equitable development.
  • While India has seen development of industries in mineral rich areas in central India, the economic development in these areas is not akin to rest of the country.
  • These areas have now become what is called as the ‘Red Corridor’ because here, local population is involved in Left wing Extremism, primarily owing to lack of socio-economic development of the people.

Corruption

  • Corruption is widely recognised as a threat to peace and security in the nation. When corruption becomes entrenched, it undermines the development of state authority and its institutions, leaving a weak state with potentially more space for insurgents to operate.
  • While the poor often suffer the most, this cycle of impunity leaves ordinary people disempowered, unable to seek justice in courts or hold politicians to account. This makes them further impoverished, but also sows the seeds of conflict by dissolving any ties of loyalty between people and a state seemingly captured by private interests.
  • In contrast, people with a stake in society are more likely to reject those who preach violence to achieve their ends. It is not surprising therefore, that we see a constant and sad correlation
    between corruption and conflict.
  • The pervasive misuse of public office for private gain is an evil eating into the vitals of the state, sapping India’s strength. When important decisions, from arms procurement to policy changes, are often tainted by corrupt considerations, it is inevitable that internal security will get compromised.
  • Ultra Left forces were thriving in rural areas because of the vacuum created by politicians and social activists. The corrupt state machinery has contributed to the weakening of the state. It is when the system is subverted that certain elements step in and intervene in favour of the people and win their support, leading to spread to Maoism.

Prolonged Judicial System

  • The Malimath Committee on Criminal Justice System Reforms noted: “It is common knowledge that the two major problems besieging the Criminal Justice System are huge pendency of criminal cases and the inordinate delay in disposal of criminal cases.
  • About 47 million cases are pending in various courts across the country. Of them, 87.4% are pending in subordinate courts, and 12.4% in High Courts, thus huge pendency of criminal cases and the inordinate delay in disposal of criminal cases are major problems.
  • People get disenchanted when they do not get quick and affordable justice. Such pendency of cases is detrimental to the national security as criminals acquire notion of impunity.

Low Conviction Rate

  • With lot of pendency of cases in courts, on an average the judges have 2 to 6 minutes to hear the case. Consequently, there is very low rate of conviction in cases involving serious crimes (only 47% in 2015). This has encouraged crime.
  • Violence and organised crimes have become the order of the day. As chances of convictions are low, crime has become a profitable business.
  • Law and order situation has deteriorated over the years and citizens have lost confidence in the Criminal Justice System.

Hostile Neighbours

  • India shares a significant part of its border with Pakistan and China, and have had strained relationship with its eastern as well as western neighbours.
  • India and Pakistan have been at loggerheads ever since they got independence from British Rule. The neighbours even entered four times into war since partition of India in 1947.
  • Control over Kashmir has been a major bone of contention between the two countries. Pakistan is involved in a proxy-war with India through cross border terrorism, pumping fake Indian currency notes (FICN), drug trafficking etc.
  • India and China relations have been contentious owing to unsettled boundary dispute between them. China disputes validity of treaty signed between British India and Tibet in 1914. A war was also fought to settle the boundary dispute in 1962.
  • In present times, Maoists in India look towards China for ideological support, China has been following a policy of “String of Pearls” – acquiring rights to use ports for naval operations in Indian Ocean – encircling India. In addition, China and Pakistan have a nexus and proposed China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) passes through Pakistan occupied Kashmir and India has reservations with that.

Difficult terrain in Some Regions

  • Difficult terrain in border areas in the North East and Northern region of India makes management of border a challenging task.
  • The presence of insurgents in North East region, militants in Jammu and Kashmir region and Maoist in hilly tract of central India make the task of security agencies more complex and challenging as they have to deal with twin challenges of the hostilities of these groups and difficult terrain.

Communal Discord

  • Lack of communal harmony and intolerance is leading to communal discord. Hindu-Muslim conflicts are common in India; however, the country has also seen the Anti-Sikh riots in 1984.
  • According to the Ministry of Home Affairs communal incidents occurred in the country from 2011 to October, 2015 on an average of 58 incidents a month.
  • In addition, riots result in substantial property damage, loss of livelihood and residential segregation. Certain vested interests benefit tremendously from the various divides in our society.
  • These vested interests have carried on a communal propaganda over the years to ensure that a majority of the community displays a sense of pseudo-communalism. The selfish attitude of society is only adding fuel to the Communal bandwagon.

Caste Consciousness

  • Caste consciousness is deep routed in our society. Caste system has become inseparable aspect of Indian society and it has influenced all the areas like education, economy, politics, marriage, and religion.
  • Even seven decades after getting independence, Dalits are mistreated, elections are fought more often on the basis of caste ideology.
  • Democracy and caste cannot go together, because caste is based on principle of inequality, but unfortunately, fault lines in the society are exploited by few individuals and the society remains on the boil.
  • Taking important decisions through the prism of caste hampers the objectivity of the decisions and in the long run proves counterproductive to strong nation building.

Internal Security Challenges of India

The internal security challenges of India emanate from various sources and are of different kinds. These could be enlisted in the following way:

  • External Challenges
  • Developmental Deficits Challenges
  • Geographical Challenges
  • Social Challenges
  • Technological Challenges
Internal Security Challenges of India
Instability in Neighbouring Countries induced External Threats
  • India’s neighbouring countries are plagued by instable security environment due to religious fundamentalism or ethnic clashes. Pakistan has been waging a proxywar in the form of terrorism, counterfeit currency and drug trafficking for more than three decades. It started with giving support to Khalistan separatist in early 1980s and then from late 1980s provided support to militancy in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • In Bangladesh, crackdown on militant camps belonging to insurgents from North-East India happened in 2014 but it still remains hiding place for the insurgents. More worrying sign is that the fundamentalist forces are gaining ground leading to rise in sectarian and religious violence. Recently, Bangladesh has seen religious minorities and their religious places being targeted. Myanmar, which has taken first few steps towards democracy, has a history of harbouring insurgents from North-East India. Now it is under international scanner for its role in persecution of Rohingyas in Rakhine province causing exodus of lakhs of Rohingya refugees in the neighbouring countries which could be potential threat to internal security of India.
  • Nepal, which has successfully seen general election in 2017, faced Maoist violence till a decade ago. The rehabilitation of Maoists remains a potential internal security threat to Nepal and beyond. Thus, it is evident from above discussion that internal security in India could be disturbed by the unstable environment in India’s neighbouring countries.
China’s Interest in North East India
  • China claims Arunachal Pradesh as a part of the South Tibet. It has raised few controversies vis-avis Arunachal Pradesh by issuing stapled visas to inhabitants of Arunachal Pradesh in the past. Racial and Ethnic similarities of North Eastern population with China has caused few groups to have pro China attitude. Surveillance and frequent incursions by China’s security agencies has been an internal security threat to India. In 2017, there occurred a major border stand-off with China at Doklam plateau near Sikkim border which made it clear that China’s interest in the region will not wane anytime soon.
  • Doklam, situated on Bhutan-China border is strategically important for India as it is situated at the India-BhutanChina tri-junction. Bhutan has no diplomatic ties with China and India has a special relationship – including militarily – with Bhutan. In short, India has responsibilities towards Bhutan, which include helping it guard its sovereignty. India gains too, with Bhutan firmly on its side.
Illegal Migration from Bangladesh
  • Illegal migration from Bangladesh is a major internal security challenge for India. India shares its longest border with Bangladesh i.e. 4096.7 km. The presence of hundreds of small river streams and few major rivers in this area makes the border porous enabling illegal migrants to cross through water streams and migrate into India. This may lead to anti-India activities such as smuggling of livestock, medicines and drugs, counterfeit currency rackets and money laundering, most alarming concern being the route used by terrorists to intrude India and smuggle weapons into Indian Territory. Regular influx of migrants has changed the demography of the neighbouring states and presence of illegal migrants in Indian cities is also a potential threat to internal security, for they can be involved in anti-India activities at the behest of foreign powers.
Militancy and Terrorism in J&K led by Pakistan
  • Indian forces have been battling militancy in J&K for more than three decades now. There are multiple dimensions to this problem namely, secessionist movements, communal violence – leading to exodus of Kashmiri Pandits from Kashmir, intervention by Pakistan. The presence of militancy has badly hit the tourism industry – prime revenue and employment generator – of the state leading to lack of socioeconomic development and rise in unemployment, this has proved to be a vicious cycle, as youth, when not left with positive prospects, fall easy prey to the propaganda by Pakistan. The misguided youth are trained and equipped by neighbouring country across the border and pose a significant security challenge for India.
  • With the advent of social media, the threats have become graver as youth are indoctrinated through
    online campaigns and are able to communicate and coordinate their activities in an unprecedented manner. Consequently, there is a rise in the number of terrorist attacks since 2012.
Left-wing Extremism
  • There is an agreement among security experts that the Left-Wing Extremism (LWE) is the most serious internal security threat facing the country. It has been there from the late 60s and 70s and different parts of the country have been affected with different levels of naxal violence.
  • It creates conditions for non-functioning of the government by attacking symbols of state like schools, hospitals, police and actively seeks disruption of development activities as a means to achieve its objective of ‘wresting control’.
  • The central reason for the advancement of Naxalism is the vast exploitation of the poor and the tribals. People, who have been displaced, should be given proper rehabilitation along with police protection. Security, as well as development, has to run hand in hand. Thus, Government needs a multi-pronged approach to deal with this threat effectively.
  • India’s development paradigm pursued since Independence led to commercialisation of forest
    resources, thereby reducing the traditional access of forest dwellers and tribals to forest produce. Besides destroying their natural environment, mining-based industries and the construction of large dams caused wide-scale displacement of the tribals. Therefore, LWE has gained people’s confidence, grown in strength particularly in forest and tribal areas, by mobilising dispossessed and marginalised sections.
Insurgency in North East
  • 2017 witnessed lowest number of insurgency since 1997. The integration of North Eastern states into India has not been smooth. Consequently, this region has seen a number of secessionist movements since India gained independence. All eight states in the North East have been associated with some form of movement. There are issues of ethnicity and sub-nationalism in this region leading to use of violence by different groups for meeting their specific demands.
  • The problem is compounded because of lack of development, non-realisation of autonomy provided within the realm of Constitution of India, difficult terrain and international boundaries. These factors make it difficult for the security agencies to track movements of insurgents and weapons in this region. The Government of India have had a mixed bag of results when it comes to resolving these issues, as some groups have successfully shunned the path of violence and joined the mainstream, for example, recently ‘Centre-NSCN(IM)’ pact was signed, while some, like NSCN (K), are still in fight with the government.
Organised Crime and its Nexus with Terrorism
  • The evolving relationship between terrorism and organised crime poses significant challenges to the internal security scenario of India. Activities of terrorists and organised criminals frequently reinforce each other, where terrorists engage either directly or indirectly in organised crime activities such as trafficking, smuggling, extortion, kidnapping for ransom and the illicit trade of natural resources, for financial and/or material benefits.
  • Such benefits contribute to undermining state security, stability and social and economic development, which in turn may create or maintain the conditions for organised criminal groups to flourish. Organised crime such as drug trafficking, arms trafficking, money laundering, counterfeit currency and mafia activities are used to finance various terrorist activities in India. The network and wherewithal of the organised crime can be leveraged by terrorist organisation to plan, coordinate and execute terrorist
    attack, for example, in Mumbai Blasts of 1993, where 257 people lost their lives, were coordinated by organised criminal network of Mumbai. The proximity of India to the drug trafficking zones, Golden Triangle (Myanmar, Laos and Thailand) and Golden Crescent (through Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan) also make it vulnerable to these criminal activities.
Coastal Security
  • India has 7,516 kilometre long coastline. India’s coasts have always been vulnerable to criminals and anti national activities. Numerous cases of the smuggling of goods, gold, narcotics, explosives, arms and ammunition as well as the infiltration of terrorists into the country through these coasts have been reported over the years.
  • The physical proximity of India’s coasts to politically volatile countries adds to its vulnerability. India has been facing Pakistan sponsored cross-border terrorism for decades. Terrorists with arms and explosives have been infiltrating into the country from Pakistan through the land borders.
  • However, over the years, with the increased deployment of security forces and surveillance equipment as well as the construction of fences, security along the land borders has been sufficiently tightened. On the other hand, security over the ocean domain has been lax, with the sea routes remaining poorly guarded. Forced to explore new routes for infiltration because of near fool proof security along the land borders, terrorists started looking towards the sea as an alternate route to slip into India undetected.
  • The infiltration of ten Pakistani terrorists through the sea route who carried out the multiple coordinated attacks in Mumbai on November 26, 2008, is the most glaring example of how vulnerable the country’s coasts are. Security implications of the coastal waters and shores cannot be overstated in the present world; hence, secured coasts are imperative for security of the country.
Border Management
  • India has a large and complex border, covering around 15,100 km, which it shares with seven different countries. Most of these borders are man-made and do not follow any natural barrier. Managing borders is difficult for several reasons. Some of our maritime boundaries are still unsettled. Land borders are not fully demarcated. Border guarding forces are often under resourced and ill-equipped. They are also used for purposes other than border guarding. Intelligence gathering, intelligence sharing and intelligence coordination are shoddy. Institutional mechanisms for coordinating intelligence gathering, sharing and intelligence coordination are weak. India’s vast coastline and island territories also make it vulnerable to attacks and infiltration. In addition, political instability, cultural radicalism and patronage to mafia and terrorism in a few of the neighbouring countries make border management an important aspect to guard India’s sovereignty.
Ethnic Conflicts
  • Ethnic conflict is one of the major threat to the internal peace and security. India is characterized by more ethnic and religious groups than most other countries of the world. Aside from the much noted 3000-odd castes, there are eight “major” religions, 22 scheduled languages spoken in hundreds of dialects, and a substantial number of tribes and sects. Any diversity and heterogeneity is not conflict producing per se, although it may become a potential for conflict. While India presents the picture of “unity and diversity,” the possibility of conflict between the “unity” and the “diversity” could not be ruled out. This worry is reflected in quote below by PM Jawaharlal Nehru: “While on the one hand, we the people of India are bound together by strong bonds of culture, common objectives, friendship and affection, on the other hand, unfortunately, there are inherent in India, separatist and disruptive tendencies… (which made India suffer in the past. In preserving its unity, India needed to)… fight communalism, provincialism, separatism, statism and casteism.”
  • This worry remains valid in present times as well. Assam has repeatedly seen ethnic violence e.g. in 1983 more than 3000 people lost their lives. In 2012, violence in Kokrajhar and adjoining districts took lives of around 80 people, similar conflict in 2014, in Sonitpur, Kokrajhar and adjoining districts took around 80 lives. The cause behind Assam violence was ethnic tension between Bodo speaking indigenous population and Bengali speaking Muslims. Apart from Assam there are various tribes in other North-East States that involve in ethnic clashes. Such conflicts undermine the spirit of “unity in diversity” and are detrimental to the internal security of the country.
Region and Language based Conflicts
  • India being a vast country so regional differences are bound to happen. This is because of different customs, language, heritage and region. Linguistic conflicts in 1967 took a violent turn in the form to anti-Hindi protests in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Under the stress of emotions and ignorance, linguistic minorities in certain states became object of physical assault and violence and the majority community formed the lopsided concept of the “sons of the soil”.
  • There are certain states that have seen movements based on “son of the soil” construct. Regional chauvinism is on rise and in 2010 Maharashtra has seen protests against people from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Similar incident happened in 2012, when Bengaluru witnessed mass exodus of people belonging to North East of India.
  • Constitution of India has provided freedom to the citizens of India to reside in any part of the country. Above mentioned conflicts are not conducive for Indian democracy and Government must make all effort to avoid reoccurrences of such incidents.
Caste Conflicts
  • Caste conflicts have deep roots in our society. Caste system in India has strong historical underpinnings. There are certain castes “Untouchables”, who have been on the receiving end of atrocities and injustice in India for centuries. After India gained independence equality was ensured by the constitution. But it is yet to translate in the socioeconomic transformation of the country. India has a long history of caste conflicts. In 1997, Ranvir Sena gunned down 58 Dalits at Laxmanpur Bathe in Bihar in retaliation for the Bara massacre in Gaya where 37 upper castes Bhumihars were killed.
  • With a total of 39,408 cases in 2013 and 47,064 cases in 2014, the rising cases of atrocities on Dalits show that India doesn’t treat these groups, more than the substantial chunk of its population, well. The enmity between castes is caused because of competing aspirations among various castes for a limited share of economic resources and social status. India witnessed violence during Gujjar protests in Rajasthan in 2008, Jat protests in Haryana in 2016. Apart from these there have been protests by Marathas in Maharashtra in 2017, in Maharashtra, protests by Dalits in Gujarat in 2017, Dalit vs. Thakur clashes in western Uttar Pradesh in 2017. All these incidents reflect that there is simmering discontent in communities and society is fraught with hostility between various castes and sections.
  • The situation has the potential to become a major security challenge. Thus, the Government, civil society as well as citizens have a role to play in dealing with the situation comprehensively.
Communalism
  • Communalism is basically an ideology. Communal riots are only one consequence of the spread of this ideology. Communalism is the belief that because a group of people belong to a particular community or follow a particular religion they have common secular, that is, social, political and economic interests. These interests are propagated by the political leaders of the community to be antithetical/direct opposition to other community’s interests, thereby laying seeds for divisive political tactics by presenting the other community as threat to its interests.
  • India is facing the scourge of communalism, the genesis of this problem could be traced back to the British policies of ‘divide and rule’, which first divided the electoral franchise and ultimately, led to the partition of India. Even after independence, India has lost thousands of lives owing to communal clashes. The rising trend of communalism and the violence is the major threat posed towards the integrity of nation. The increased communal consciousness and the support received from some religious leaders make the phenomenon of communalism more venomous and dangerous.
  • Communal conflicts fan the feeling of alienation and religious hatred among religions communities. The reason for such a clash could be superficial and trivial, though underlying theme has deeper considerations of political representation, control of and access to resources and power. Thus, such environment is a fertile ground for creating severe internal security challenge for the country.
Cyber-Crime
  • Cyber-crime is emerging as a serious threat to the internal security problem of India. Cyber-crime operates in white collar crime, economic crime, intellectual property infringement, telecommunications crime and in the civil jurisdiction. The common feature is the use of information technology (computers) in their commission. At the national and international level governments, police departments and intelligence agencies are seriously thinking about how to check and control the growing menace of cyber-crime in our society. Serious efforts are being planned to curb cross border cyber threats. Indian police has initiated special cyber cells across the country and has started educating and training the Police personnel.
Cyber-Security
  • Cyber Security means securing the cyber space. While India has made good progress in establishing itself as a significant player in the Information Technology and Communication Technology (ICT), there have been numerous incidents of sensitive government and military computers being attacked by unknown entities leading to information being stolen. The frequency and intensity of such episodes are increasing.
  • The Indian government has embarked upon a programme to turn the country into a digital economy. The move towards a digital economy also poses a big challenge, that of cyber-security. With the move towards a digital economy a large number of transactions will be carried out online, by companies, individuals as well as government departments. That makes India a bigger target for cyber-criminals and hackers. The cost of cyber-attacks in India currently stands in excess of Rs 25,000 crore ($4billion). It is important to note that there are many cyber-attacks that go undetected and unreported as well, so this number could be much higher. Various stakeholders need to be better prepared to handle this security threat.

Aspects of Internal Security Policy

Aspects of Internal Security Policy
Political
  • The Indian constitution provides for a parliamentary form of government which is well entrenched in India and the opposition has an important role to play in any democracy. The political situation in some parts of India is disturbing, there is increasing clamour for secession, separation and sub-regional nationalism. While the armed extremists should be dealt with heavy hand, legitimate demands must be heard with open mind while seeking solutions within constitutional mandate.
  • Government must devise a strategy to provide political solution to the problem, which could vary from giving more autonomy and regional development, to increase the political representation of aggrieved section in the government.
Socio-Economic
  • Socio-economic conditions impact the quality of lives of the citizens. Experts believe that the biggest reason for law and order problems and deterioration of internal security is socio-economic conditions of the population.
  • When the population is not able to meet their basic daily needs and see a bleak future for their next generation, they are forced to think of alternatives to improve the situation. Unfortunately, some of them are attracted to act against the state in desperation or under the influence of some ideology that promises them better avenues in the future.
  • Government should take steps to improve the service delivery, provide basic necessities to the population and distribute the fruits of economic growth in such a manner that socio-economic conditions change for the better.
Law Enforcement Agencies
  • Law Enforcement Agencies are tasked with maintenance of Law and Order. There is a general perception that state police forces are not sensitive in their dealing with the public at large. While there may be inadequacies with police forces, a part of the blame must go to the political executive who have used police force as per their parochial interests.
  • There has been lack of interest in modernising the police force, increasing number of personnel in the force as well as providing operational independence and reducing political interferences. The way police operate has led to discontent among the common citizens who feels scared to approach the police. This hesitation has denied the police of the vital intelligence gathering opportunity from the people. The instances of custodial deaths and harassment by the police further damage the perception.
  • There is urgent need to sensitise the police vis-a-vis their interactions with the public and inspire them to serve public. Comprehensive police reforms must be undertaken to make police an effective force, which
  • can address the internal security challenges facing the diverse and heterogeneous country. PM Narendra Modi has advocated the concept of ‘SMART’ policing. In ‘SMART’ policing, S stands for Strict and Sensitive, M for Modern and Mobile, A for Alert and Accountable, R for Reliable and Responsive and T for Techno-savvy and Trained. SMART policing. should be put into action immediately.
Governance
  • There is always a crucial link between “National Governance” and “Internal Security”. If internal security is not maintained Governance cannot be delivered and there would be grave threats to the very unity
  • and integrity of the country. Likewise , Internal Security cannot be safeguarded if Governance is delivered by an inefficient and corrupt administration.

Strategic Policy Group

  • The Strategic Policy Group (SPG), formed to assist the National Security Council (NSC), has been reconstituted with National Security Advisor Ajit Doval as its chief to strategize on matters dealing with internal and economic security. It will assist the NSC and undertake among other tasks a long term strategic Defence review .
  • Governance has been adversely affectedpartly because political leaders remain incessantly preoccupied with the narrow, sectarian and partisan interests of their parties and the pursuit of day-to-day political gains. The failure of the political executive to devote sustained attention to the constitutional responsibilities has led to the governmental functioning in the States being marred by gross delays, inefficiency, insensitivity, unaccountability and pervasive corruption. This has caused the people to develop apathy towards the state and consequently, people are engaged in anti-state activities.
  • To reinstate the public trust towards the state, it is paramount to bring in transparency and accountability in the administration. This in turn, will be a major contributor in safeguarding internal security of the country.
Coordination between Centre and States
  • Coordination between Centre and States is of vital importance in the federal polity of India. Since law and order is a state subject , policing authority is vested with state governments. Thus, the central government cannot directly influence the quality of policing, a source of most of the problems in the management of internal security. Unfortunately, the state governments devote little attention to this important issue, and very often, refuse to recognise the basic linkages between normal policing and the maintenance of internal security. They have neither the resources nor the inclination to upgrade the quality of the state police or to raise extra forces, without substantial financial help from the centre. There is, thus, a tendency to let the situation deteriorate till it blows out of their control. At the operational level too, as observed in many states recently, synergy is lacking, particularly when the central and state governments are run by different political alliances.
  • To ensure internal security, it is imperative that centre and state must bear the responsibilities in their respective domains as envisioned by the Constitution of India. Additionally, there must be synchronisation between centre and state so that, duplication of efforts ‘and shying away from the responsibilities are avoided.

Maharashtra, First State to Draft its own Internal Security Act

  • The draft Maharashtra Protection of Internal Security Act (MPISA), 2016, defines Critical Infrastructure Sectors (CIS), and brings nuclear reactors, dams, major projects, coastal areas under its ambit, with an emphasis on maintaining law and order and combating terrorism, insurgency, caste-related violence and communalism.
Cyber-Security
  • Cyber-Security means securing the cyber space. India’s move towards a digital economy is likely to
    help trigger a fresh wave of economic growth, attract more investment, and create new jobs, across multiple sectors. However, it also poses a big challenge, that of cyber security. With the move towards a digital economy, increasing amount of consumer and citizen data will be stored digitally and a large number of transactions will be carried out online, by companies, individuals as well as government departments, making the systems more vulnerable to cyber-attacks, if due attention is not paid to cyber security.
  • India is taking its cyber security for granted, the challenges we continue to face on this front are greater than ever and, as such, there’s still a lot of work that needs to be done. After all, as technological advancements make the threat of cyber-attacks more real, India needs to continue boosting its cyber security to match it.
Intelligence
  • India’s track record on internal security and counterterrorism makes it obvious that the intelligence establishment in the states and the centre require revamping. Our inability to pursue intelligence inputs vigorously and to book the culprits to a logical conclusion is evident in most terror related cases.
  • The intelligence agencies have yet to develop new techniques for countering the penetration of non-state actors through human and technical moles, for the collection of intelligence, greater expertise in collation, analysis, and better coordination between intelligence and law enforcement agencies. This effort is underway now and should produce better results in the future.
Border Area Management
  • Border Area management becomes more important for the fact that India is like an island of democracy among seas of anarchical or unstable states. Probably, no other neighbouring country has experienced uninterrupted democratic regime for more than 15 years. Additionally , in some countries there is cultural radicalism which is targeted on India, and terrorists and mafia groups are patronized by some of India’s neighbouring states.
  • There is cross border smuggling problem of drugs, cattle, humans, artefacts, fake currency note etc .
    Unfortunately, in this scenario our border forces appear to be severely undermanned and under-equipped which is taking heavy toll on economic, social and political stability of our country. Along the northern border there is triad of challenges in the form of hostile neighbours, Pakistan and China, and militancy in Jammu and Kashmir. In North East region there is twin challenge of insurgents and incursions by China. In Eastern border along Bangladesh there is an issue of illegal migration. It could be said that along with difficult terrain, lack of development, and domestic insurgency, the external hostilities are also a challenge in Border Ares.
  • Border Area Management in the changed context has to be seen as serving the best interests of the nation and the border areas should have a high standard of living to serve as a demographic buffer. The infrastructure should not only cater to current needs but also include scope for further expansion. Thus, Border Area management is critical for ensuring security and peace in the country.

India’s Internal Security Policy

National aims, interests and objectives drive the security and military policies and strategies of a country. The Indian national security strategy, in the current context, must not only deal with threats to our strategic autonomy but also the external military threats to the nation. It must also deal with internal threats to our core values and other non-traditional threats that face the nation. Articulation of India’s national defence policy , must take into consideration the following: the need to preserve our strategic autonomy, territorial integrity and core values; the security related developments in the global
and regional environments; the external and internal threats which impact the nation; our capabilities in
relation the capabilities of our adversaries; the need to contribute towards regional and global security; and our strategic relationships with other countries.

Security Interests and Objectives

The security interests and objectives vis-a-vis internal security could be enumerated as:

  • Protect national interests against threats like terrorism (including nuclear terrorism), insurgency and militancy with a view to negate secessionist and related destabilising efforts.
  • Promote and protect the core values of democracy, secularism, freedom, unity and human rights as enshrined in our Constitution by value-based ethics and practices as well as providing aid to civil authority, when requisitioned.
  • Maintain close surveillance and monitoring of the internal security situation in areas of heightened threat.
  • Maintain rapid response capability against terror strikes/hostage taking, involving multiple agencies, both police and military, including the National Security Guard (NSG) and Special Forces (SF).
  • Promote peace and stability in the region through cooperative economic development backed by diplomatic initiatives for resolution of disputes and conflicts.
  • Promote regional cooperation and coordination for early detection of regional/transnational crossspectrum threats, to neutralise the same in a timely and proactive manner.
  • Provide Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) support in the region, when required/requested.
  • Contribute towards selective capacity-building in the military domain among neighbouring and other friendly countries.
  • Neutralise anti-Indian efforts/propaganda by potential adversaries/inimical elements. Promote/protect diaspora interests in the region and the world.
  • Establish strong and mutually beneficial relations/ strategic partnerships with other countries, and regional/global security groupings, including the United Nations, through defence cooperation, anti-piracy, counter-terrorism and peacekeeping activities.
  • Promote security interests at the global level, including coordination of security , intelligence and cyber issues.
Present Security Scenario

The MHA is charged with the internal security of the country. It has under its command the Border Security Force (BSF), Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF), Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP), Sashastra
Seema Bal (SSB), National Security Guards (NSG), Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) and Assam Rifles (AR), the latter under the operational control of the Army.

  • The BSF has a strength of 186 battalions with an overall strength of 2,57,363 personnel, including an expanding air wing, marine wing, artillery regiments and commando units.
  • The CRPF has 239 battalions with an sanctioned strength of 3,13,678.
  • The ITBP consists of 56 battalions with an overall strength of 89,432 and is expanding further.
  • The SSB has 67 battalions with an overall strength of 76,337.
  • The NSG has expanded post 26/11 Mumbai terror attacks; hubs have been operationalized at Mumbai, Hyderabad, Chennai and Kolkata.
  • The CISF has a current strength of 165,000 and is to be expanded to 2, 00,000 over the next two-three years.
  • The AR comprises 46 battalions with an overall strength of some 63,747.

The grand total of number of battalions, not counting AR units under the operational control of the Army doubles the strength of the infantry battalions of the Army. Then there is the Indian Coast Guard (ICG) which operates some 175 naval vessels and 18 Hovercraft, and 44 Dornier and Helicopters, with more to be added in coming years. Coastal patrolling is done by the State Marine Police up to 12 nautical miles (nm) and by the ICG between 12 and 200 nm. In addition, there is the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF), presently organised in 12 battalions, the strength of each battalion being 1,149. Four NDRF battalions are capable of responding to Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) attacks. Looking at internal security holistically, the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs) together with the internal security element of the Ministry of Defence (MoD) (Rashtriya Rifles), the state police forces of all the states and union territories combined, with 145 India Reserve Battalions, total up to more than 5,000,000 men in uniform.

Limitations in Present Policy

The present policy is plagued with following limitations:

  • Though in the ‘State List’ in the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution of India, ‘public order’ and ‘police’ are the responsibilities of the states, Article 355 of the Constitution enjoins the union to protect every state against external aggression and internal disturbance. This vast charter of ensuring the requisite security in the face of mounting threats is a mammoth task that appears being handled in a somewhat ad hoc manner.
  • Reforms are reactive and piecemeal, not on any integrated and comprehensive level that should have happened as part of a national strategic planning process.
  • India has nine major intelligence agencies with the charter of some not even ratified by the Constitution. In the absence of a national security strategy and absence of defined national security objectives, how do you task the intelligence agencies?
  • Leaving the handling of the Maoists to the individual states is not effective because:
    1. The insurgents cross over to the neighbouring state when pressure mounts;
    2. The Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs) are placed under the Director General Police (DGP) of the state who is subservient to the Chief Minister while ground level MLAs relies on Maoist support, implying a softer approach and leakage of intelligence.
    3. Senior level CAPF appointments are invariably from the Indian Police Service (IPS) officers who have experience in law and order , not counter insurgency
    4. Not all CAPF troops going in for counterinsurgency are put through a mandatory preinduction training.
    5. A coordination and cooperation among police of different States, through intelligence and strategy suffers.
  • The NATGRID which should be connected to the Global Intelligence Grid (GIG) has been delayed. The NCTC needs to be established and connected via the NATGRID to state level Counter-Terrorism Centres (SCTCs) in ‘all’ states, not just a chosen few.
Suggestions and Recommendations
  • The National Security Council (NSE) and Cabinet Committee on Security should evolve an effective and pro-active counter strategy against security threats posed by various state and non-state actors including Pakistan’s ISI.
  • The Union Government should sensitise the Chief Ministers about the need to devote the highest priority to security management issue.
  • The Chief Minister and the entire state administration must devote special attention to the implementation of various developmental schemes, while the security forces are carrying out anti-insurgency/ anti-terrorist operations.
  • The State Police forces have to be modernized for which Central Government should provide modernization grants and provide assistance to the states to maintain well trained and equipped civil and armed forces.
  • Every State must be encouraged to create specialized forces to meet its requirements.
  • Each State should take steps to set up a wellequipped and modern forensic science laboratory.
  • The Centre and the States should ensure close collaboration between the State Special Branches and the Intelligence Bureau along with upgradation of the capabilities of the former.
  • State Governments should restore orderly and systematic functioning of police stations.
  • Modernization of Central Para Military Forces (CPMFs) is urgently needed.
  • In operation against insurgency, militancy and terrorism, arrangements for co-ordination of operational planning, deployment etc. should be evolved, in close consultation with the Central and State authorities.
  • There is an urgent need to revamp the criminal justice system, including making use of provisions of Evidence Act and Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) by trial courts, for expeditious conclusion of trials.
  • A strong law for Prevention of Terrorism like POTA with adequate checks and balances should be enacted as early as possible for dealing effectively with terrorism.
  • Steps should be taken to secure international cooperation in countering the challenges posed by
  • organized crime.
  • Action should be taken to create awareness about responsibilities of citizens, through educational curriculum in the schools, colleges and professional training institutions.
  • The rich potential of the electronic media should be exploited by the Government to make people aware of their duties and obligations.
  • Those occupying high public offices should set an example for the people to emulate and follow. Those who are found guilty of violating their legal or constitutional obligations should be dealt with sternly.
  • Ministry of Home Affairs should be made responsible for security of India within the boundaries of the Union and for coordination with the states and provided funds for capacity and capability building to ensure fool-proof internal security. Similarly, the Ministry of Defence (MoD) should be made responsible for all external threats including the guarding of the national borders.
  • Civil Defence: Central Government to carry out an in-depth review of the organisation’s effectiveness, identify its weaknesses and the new challenges, it will be required to meet, in the contemporary scenario and evolve a concrete plan to revamp it.
  • Steps should be taken to secure the involvement of communities in exercising requisite vigilance and in supporting and assisting the functioning of civil police. Defence parties may be formed in villages, mohallas and wards.
  • The prevention of money laundering is essential for safeguarding internal security. Thus, it is also necessary to improve the effectiveness of the Narcotics Control Bureau.
  • Concerted efforts to choke Maoists source of finance and channels of procuring weapons deserve high priority.
  • In case of Maoists’ action, political statements and counter statements, Centre versus State blame game, accusations of intelligence and security failure, should be avoided at all cost.
  • There should be clear and unequivocal message to the perpetrators by enunciation of a new national policy and strategy, initiatives towards capacity building and pressing into action innovative tactical plans.
  • There is need to give a loud and clear message to the extremists that the State will use all its power to protect its sovereign rights.
  • The front organizations, masquerading as NGOs and think tanks must be made accountable.
  • India needs to strengthen its coastal security considerations to protect its vital economic interests in two million – sq. km of EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone).

Constituents of Internal Security Policy Doctrine

The internal policy doctrine is set of strategies taken by the government to ensure security from internal threats. The external threats also have a bearing on internal security doctrine as external forces can influence the security paradigm within the country. A comprehensive doctrine vis-a-vis overall defence and security system will make sure that internal and external threats are thwarted with ease. The various dimensions/ constituents of an able internal security doctrine are represented pictorially and can be further elaborated as below.

Key Constituents of internal Security Policy Doctrine
Physical

The physical constituent will comprise of armed forces, security forces, intelligence agencies and their operational effectives. In the dynamic world of 21st century countries need to be aware of ever changing and emerging scenarios and able thinktanks could be useful in staying a step ahead of the rest.

  • Military Might: It could be understood as the capability of the military to ably respond to the challenges encountered, majorly from the external threats. It also comprises of Para-military forces and other auxiliary forces. These forces should be in best shape with respect to technological capability, modern weapon systems and organisational effectiveness to meet the challenges. The military must be able to respond to the escalations in a calibrated and precise manner.
  • Intelligence Gathering: Intelligence gathering is an important constituent of the internal security doctrine because it enables the agencies to neutralise the threat before it causes impact or damage. Intelligence provides an insight into the hostile terrorist organisations, insurgent groups and enables the agencies to take appropriate response. Counter intelligence measures entail military action and also help us analyse the ideology of anti-state movements and counter it effectively. In India, intelligence agencies like Research and Analysis Wing, Intelligence Bureau, Military Intelligence etc. are engaged in intelligence gathering operations.
  • Think Tanks for Agile Policy Development: Think tanks are group of experts other than the government who are involved in extensive research regarding national security matters and can provide valuable inputs to the security architecture of the country. They can contribute to keep abreast with the dynamic international and regional security paradigm and help the country to deal with upcoming challenges.
Governance

Good Governance is necessary to create a scenario where discontent of people is at the minimum possible level and they remain true to the cause of nation building rather than engage in anti-state activities. Basic elements of good governance are Rule of Law. Transparency. Responsiveness. Consensus Oriented. Equity and Inclusiveness. Effectiveness and Efficiency. Accountability. Participation. Security policy should address these lacunae in administration so that people are not inclined to engage in anti-state activities.

Defence Planning Committee

Keping the governenace aspect in mind the government has established a Defence Planning Committee (DPC) under the chairmanship of the National Security Adviser (NSA). It has been tasked to draft reports on “national security strategy, international defence engagement strategy, road map to build a defence manufacturing ecosystem, strategy to boost defence exports, and priority capability development plans”.

The aim is to leverage this cross-governmental body— comprising the chairman of the chiefs of staff committee, three service chiefs, the defence, expenditure and foreign secretaries—to enhance India’s ability to do some long-term strategizing.

The DPC is expected to clearly articulate the key national security/defence/military goals as well as prioritise defence and security requirements as per the likely available resources while at the same time providing adequate focus on emerging security challenges, technological advancements, and establishing a strong indigenous defence manufacturing base.

Economic

The quality of life of people is dependent, to a large extent, on the economic growth and development.

  • High Economic Growth: Countries with high economic growth can make sure resources required for building a strong nation are at its disposal. There is a strong correlation between level of economic development with other aspects like military might technological capabilities etc. More importantly, the fruits of economic growth must be distributed in a way that people are not disenchanted with government’s apathy and be swayed to join Naxalites. Thus, robust economic growth should be an important constituent of internal security doctrine.
  • Sustained Development: Economic growth should not be abrupt and a nation must have long period of sustained growth to ensure significant improvement in the levels of economic development.

Defence Offset Fund

To fund promising defence start-ups, the defence ministry intends to canalise money that accrues from the discharge of offsets into a Defence Offsets Fund (DOF), and leverage that with market funding. DOF will be modelled on the Electronics Development Fund (EDF), of the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY).

Technological

Technological abilities are synonymous to the operational effectiveness and overall capabilities of the nation.

  • Advancements: The foundation of a strong nation lies in the scientific and technological advancement. Countries with high scientific development like USA, Germany etc. are able to deal with the challenges in more comprehensive way. Absence of scientific and technological advancements will not transform the lives of people and people may get dis-satisfied with their lack of progress.
  • Innovations: India wants to be a knowledge economy. To realise this innovation and research are two important drivers. Innovations in one sector can become useful in an array of sectors driving change and transformation in material life of citizen. This will reduce hardships in people’s lives and prevent them from joining anti-state forces.

Keeping the indigenous technological abilities in mind government has introduced New Defence Procurement Policy (DPP)-2016.

The policy focuses on institutionalising , streamlining and simplifying defence procurement procedure to give a boost to “Make in India” initiative of the Government of India, by promoting indigenous design, development and manufacturing of defence equipment, platforms, systems and sub-systems.

Purchase of equipment and procurements under this scheme are further categorized as Buy (Indian-IDDM), Buy (Indian), Buy and Make (Indian), Buy and Make and Buy (Global). Arranged in decreasing order of priority are categorized as (i) Buy (India-IDDM). (ii) Buy (Indian), (iii) Buy and Make (Indian) (iv) Buy and Make (v) Buy (Global)

The key features of revised DPP include:

  • A new category of procurement ‘Buy {IndianIDDM (Indigenously Designed, Developed and Manufactured)}’ has been introduced in Defence Procurement Procedure-2016 and the same has been accorded top most priority for procurement of capital equipment.
  • Requirement of Indigenous content has been enhanced/rationalised for various categories of capital acquisition.
  • The ‘Make’ Procedure has been simplified with provisions for funding of 90 % of development cost by the government to Indian industry and reserving projects not exceeding development cost of Rs. 10 crore (government funded) and Rs. 3 crore (industry funded) for MSMEs.

Draft Defence Production Policy, 2018

Ministry of Defence has released a new Draft Defence Production Policy (DProP), 2018. It focuses on selfreliance and seeks to change India’s position from being the largest importer of arms in the world.

Salient Features

  • Indigenous Defence production: The policy targets 2025 for becoming self-reliant in 13 weapons platforms.
  • It includes fighter aircraft, warships, tanks, missiles and artillery, which constitute the bulk of India’s imports.
  • It calls for increased participation of MSMEs, startups and other players from the private sector in the defence industry.
  • Liberal Policies: The policy would liberalise licences that will be provided to defence industries.
  • The companies with a good track record will be given favourable consideration.
  • The policy also liberalises the FDI regime in the defence sector.
  • It aims at advancing and boosting the existing public sector defence production units.
  • The recent policy aims at fusing together technologies from Ordnance Factory Board, Defence Public Sector Undertaking and private players.
  • It plans on setting up Defence Export Organisation in partnership with the industry which will facilitate for overseas marketing of domestically produced goods.
Psychological

Psychological here means mental and emotional construct. A nation is made up of its people, hence role of people is one of the most important constituent of internal security doctrine. Without the support of the people any insurgent movement is short lived and can be easily shattered by the state. Enlisting civilian support is not a physical component, but a psychological component as it involves the change in the mind-set of the people.

  • People’s Resolve to Stand by Government: To secure civilian support the government must provide people with the fruits of growth and good governance and employment. This effort of the government sensitises officials in their dealing with public and people get to appreciate the honesty of the officials. Winning the hearts and minds of the people is the beginning of ensuring people’s support toward government.
  • Ideological Measures: One of the effective ways to counter anti-state movements involves counter ideological measures rather than traditional counter-insurgency measures; this aspect is generally not given required attention by the state machinery. Strong state doctrines that counter Maoist ideology are necessary to completely eradicate anti-state movements like left-wing extremists. These measures can create a huge psychological impact on militants and civilians, who can be involved in governance process and is the only way to growth and success.
Conclusion

Devising an internal security policy is not an easy task, given the complexities involved in having to
deal with multiple armed conflicts. There are usually two dimensions towards formulating such a policy based on a focus on the national security of a state.

First, there is the physical dimension determined by the military capabilities of the state to counter internal dissent. This will also include intelligence agencies, the economic growth pattern of the state, as well as the development packages provided to affected areas in order to improve the governance mechanisms.

The second dimension is more psychological, which indicates the willingness of the people of the state to support the efforts of the government to achieve certain national interests.

National interest as mentioned above can be neatly divided into three broad clusters. First, survival interests of a state. This includes threats to the survival of a particular state, its territorial integrity and sovereignty. Second, critical interests that could become first order interests in the long term: economic capabilities, living standards, health of the political system, etc. Third, serious interests which could include such interests that do not impact the first two interests but could cast problems over them. For example, non-violent political dissent, fluctuation in prices of oil, etc. Viewed from this perspective, the armed insurgencies and terrorism within India directly threaten the survival of the state as well as its territorial integrity. Therefore, dealing with them is a first order interest of the Indian state.



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bhushan

source of this notes?