• Barak River (Meghna River) originates from Japvo mountain of Manipur hills at an altitude of 3,015 m and flows south through mountainous terrain up to Tipaimukh near the tri-junction of the three states: Assam, Manipur and Mizoram. Here, the river takes a hairpin bend and debouches into the plains of Cacher district of Assam and forms the border of Assam and Manipur states up to Jirimat, a little upstream of Lakhimpur.
  • The river then flows through the Barak valley of Assam. From the source to the Indo-Bangladesh border, the Barak River flows for 564 km.
  • The river enters Bangladesh as Surma and Kushiyara. Later, the river is called the Meghna and receives the combined flow of the Ganga and Brahmaputra.
  • The Barak sub-basin drains areas in India, Bangladesh and Burma.
  • Of its length 524 km (326 mi) is in India, 31 km (19 mi) on the Indo–Bangladesh border and the rest is in Bangladesh.
  • The upper part of its navigable part is in India — 121 km (75 mi) between Lakhipur and Bhanga, declared as National Waterway 6, (NW-6) since the year 2016.
  • The drainage area of the sub-basin lying in India is 41,157 sq. km which is nearly 1.38% of the total geographical area of the country.
    • It is bounded on the north by the Barail range, on the east by the Naga and Lushai hills and on the south and west by Bangladesh.
    • The sub-basin lies in the States of Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Assam, Tripura and Nagaland.
  • The principal tributaries of Barak are the Jiri, the Dhaleswari, the Singla, the Longai, the Sonai and the Katakhal.
  • Hydropower Potential
    • The Hydro power Potential at 60% load factor for Barak River is 3908 MW.
  • Major Projects
    • Tipaimukh Dam Project, Tista Champamati and Dhansiri barrages
  • Major Problems
    • Floods are an annual feature in the Brahmaputra-Barak basin where the maximum flood prone area is of the order of 4.33 Million ha.
    • Besides a large number of towns and villages are affected by the erosive action of rivers.
Barak River
Barak River valley

Kushiyara River 

  • Kushiyara River is a distributary river in Bangladesh and Assam.
  • It forms on the India-Bangladesh border as a branch of the Barak River when the Barak separates into the Kushiyara and Surma.
  • The waters of the Kushiyara originate in the state of Nagaland and pick up tributaries from Manipur, Mizoram and Assam.
  • The Kushiyara river water agreement signed between India and Bangladesh on September 6 2022.
Barak River UPSC

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