Important Ports in India – UPSC

In this article, You will read the List of Important Major Seaports and Minor Sea Ports in India – for UPSC IAS.

Important Ports in India

Mandvi :

  • An ancient port and ship-building centre situated at Mandvi, in the northern coast of the Gulf of Kutch
  • Well known for country craft construction from ancient time
  • Export – Clay, bauxite, cotton, seeds, salt and oil cakes

Mundra :

  • Located between Mandvi and Kandla on the coast of the Gulf of Kutch , is the largest private port in India
  • Capable of handling more than 100 million tonnes of bulk, liquid and containarised cargo.
  • Integral part of a SEZ
  • Tata Power is building an UMPP here

Kandla :

  • Located in the eastern corner of the Gulf of Kutch, one of the major ports of the western coast
  • Constructed in 1950s as the chief sea port serving western India, after the partition of India from Pakistan when port of Karachi went to Pakistan

Okha :

  • Located at the western corner of the Kathiawar Peninsula
  • It is a minor port
  • Has cement plants and an automobile – assembly plant
  • Fishing and salt processing

Sikka :

  • Located at near Jaunagar in the Kathiawar Peninsula , is a minor port of Gujarat
  • It is all weather direct berthing port
  • Offers excellent tranquility conditions for the safe opearations of the vessels

Porbandar :

  • An all weather port with direct berthing conveniences , faces the Arabian Sea and located along the west coast of Saurashtra
  • Wharfs for streamer are available
  • Connected by a broad guage railway

Veraval :

  • Fair weather lighterage port , situated in the south-western coast of Saurashtra
  • Designed mainly for fishing
  • Developed during the 18th century

Kodinar :

  • City and municipality in the Junagarh district of Saurashtra region
  • Located between Somnath (West) and Diu (East)
  • Nearest important port is the Veraval Port

Alang :

  • Port city on the eastern coast of Saurashtra, in the Bahvnagar district
  • One of the largest shipbreaking yards of the world.
  • Shot into news when the French aircraft carrier Clemenceau was prohibited by the Supreme Court of India to enter in the port in 2006

Bhavnagar :

  • Located in the west coast of the Gulf of Khambhat in the eastern Kathiawar Peninsula
  • 10 km away from the Bhavnagar city
  • An all weather berthing port of small vessels
  • Vessels jetty must pass through the lock Gate Door

Bharuch :

  • Important port of Gujarat, located at the mouth of the Narmada River in the east coast of the Gulf of Khambhat
  • Dahej Port is located near to it
  • Handle the trade of petrochemicals

Alibag :

  • Located just 19 km at sea from the south Mumbai
  • No significant port facility
  • Comes under the Raigarh district
  • Called as Mini Goa of Maharashtra
  • Tourism is the mainstay of its economy

Ratnagiri :

  • Most important port of the southern coast of Maharashtra
  • Handles trade of minerals and other commodities
  • Marine Biological Research Station for fishery
  • Bharati Shipyard Limited is located here.

Karwar :

  • Minor port and coastal city of Karnataka
  • Located near the mouth of the Kalindi River.
  • Headquarters of the Uttar Kannada district.
  • Karwar port plays a major role in the sea trade, fishing and maritime services of the nation.
  • Located on the NH-66 and the Konkan Railway.
  • Mountain towards sea protects it and makes it one of the best ports of the world.

Uduppi :

  • A minor port and coastal city of Karnataka to the north of Mengaluru , near the mouth of the Sita River
  • Located on the NH-66 and the Konkan Railway
  • Has the highest average per-capita income in the state according to a survey by a private firm
  • Known for the Krishna Matt

Kasargod :

  • Located near the mouth of the Payaswani River in the northern part of Kerala
  • A minor port and the northernmost of the important cities of Kerala
  • Agro –based industries are found
  • Helped by the NH-66, the Konkan Railway and the West Coast Road

Kannur :

  • Minor port and coastal city of Kerala , located north of Mahe (Puducherry)
  • Centre of the Moplah community of Arab descent
  • Mainly agri-based industries
  • Helped by the NH-66 and the Konkan Railway

Mumbai Port :

  • A natural deep water harbour and major port located in the eastern edge of the Mumbai City
  • Nhava Sheva (on Navi Mumbai ) was created to relieve off its pressure
  • It has been the gateway to India and was the contributing factor in the emergence of Mumbai as the commercial capital of India

Nhava Sheva (JNPT):

  • Also named as Jawaharlal Nehru Port
  • Lies on the mainland, opposite the city of Mumbai across the Thane Creek
  • Located close to the Elephanta Island
  • Created to reduce pressure on the Mumbai Port and increase the shipping capacity of Mumbai
  • Most modernised and the largest port of India
  • The port handles 65% of India’s container traffic
  • Has three terminals: JNCPT, NSICT, GTI
  • NSICT is India’s first privately managed container terminal

Mangalore :

  • A major port city in the southern part of Canara Coast, located near the mouth of the Kumardhar River
  • Upgraded in the Fourth Five Year Plan
  • Hinterland – Karnataka , northern Kerala
  • Export : Tea, coffee, spices, iron ore
  • Import – Petroleum, fertilizers, edible oils
  • Petroleum refinery
  • Facility of the NH-66 and the Konkan Railway

Mahe :

  • Exclave of Puducherry, located on the Malabar Coast as an enclave of Kannur district of Kerala
  • minor port
  • Agri- based industries, fishing, tourism
  • Aided by the NH-66

Kozhikode :

  • Also known as Calicut, is the third largest city of Kerala
  • Ancient and Middle Ages – ‘City of Spices’.
  • Declared the country’s first hunger free city
  • Vasco da Gama reached here in 1498
  • Was famous for trade of spices in the old times
  • Located on the NH-66

Alapuzha (Aleppy) :

  • City on the Malabar Coast, to the southwest of the Vembanad Lake
  • minor port
  • Centre of coir, coconut, and cashewnut processing.
  • Served by an inland waterway system stretching from Kochi to Kollam

Ernakulam :

  • Located on the shore of the Vembanand Lake, opposite of Kochi
  • Seat of the Kerala High Court
  • An important port, engineering and ship building

Kottayam :

  • Located in the south-east corner of the Vembanand Lake
  • First tobacco free district in India
  • Hub of inland navigable water system
  • Newsprinting, rubber, cement, chemicals
  • Headquarter of Malyalam Manorama
  • In 1989 became first municipality of India to achieve 100% literacy

Kollam :

  • Formerly known as Quilon, located on the coast of the Asthamudi Lake
  • Trading port during the Greek and Roman times.
  • Beach sands are processed for rare earth
  • Industries – Aluminium, cashewnut processing, procelain and ceramics

Kochi :

  • Major port at the mouth of the Vembanand Lake
  • Traditional seaport even during the Roman Period
  • Many islands
  • Naval Command Centre and Coast Guard District Headquarters
  • Natural harbour, shipbuilding, oil refinery
  • Export : Tea, coffee, spices/ Import-Oil, fertilizers

Kanniyakumari :

  • Located at the Cape Comorin in Tamil Nadu
  • A minor port, and religious and tourist place
  • National Highway-44
  • Agri–based industries
  • Kudankulam Nuclear Reactor is located nearby it

Colachel Seaport :

  • Colachel International Seaport also known as Enayam port, is proposed (and located in Colachel, Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu) into a major port transforming it into India’s southern trans-shipment gateway.
  • The Port is proposed at Colachel, 19 km away from Nagercoil, capital of Kanyakumari District.
  • Colachel is already a natural harbour.

Tuticorin :

  • A major port on the coast of the Gulf of Mannar
  • A new port has been developed about 8km southwest of the old port
  • Handles the traffic of coal, salt, food grains, edible oils, sugar and petroleum products
  • Location of a new oil refinery

Vedaranniyam :

  • A minor port near the Point Calimere , the apex of the Kaveri Delta
  • Economy : salt manufacturing , fishing, salt water prown, agriculture
  • Salt March on 30 April 1930 – Trichy to Vedaranniyam by Rajgopalchari
  • Point Calimere Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary

Dhanushkodi :

  • A small town located in the eastern part of the Pamban Island
  • 1964 cyclone destroyed the railway line that connected India with Sri Lanka
  • According to Hindu scriptures at the request of Vibeeshana, Rama broke the sethu with one end of his bow, so it is named Dhanushkodi
  • It is said that the pilgrimage to Kashi is completed only when followed by a holy bath at Dhanushkodi

Nagapattinam :

  • A minor port on the Kaveri Delta, south of Karaikal (Puducherry)
  • Industries – Textiles, leather goods, oil extractions
  • Fishing is main industry
  • One of the best harbours in the country
  • A major pilgrimage centre of Hindus, Muslims and Christians

Yanam :

  • A district and distant territory (exclave) of Puducherry, located in Andhra Padesh between the deltas of Godavari and Krishna
  • Rice cultivation, agro based industries
  • Tourism is significant
  • A 30 km enclave in the East Godavari district

Srikakulam :

  • A minor port and coastal city of Andhra Padesh, to north-east of Vishakhapatnam
  • Once the capital of the of the Northern Circar
  • Located on the National Highway-16 (previously NH-5) and the Chennai Kolkata main rail line.
  • Known for many temples.

Karaikal :

  • Territory of Puducherry on the Coromandel Coast of Tamil Nadu, to the south of Puducherry
  • Bounded by the Nagapattnam (north and south)
  • Was a French colony and a minor trading hub
  • Known for its rich cultural heritage

Cuddalore :

  • A minor port on the Coromandel Coast of Tamil Nadu, at the mouth of the Ponnaiyar River.
  • A few kms south of Puducherry
  • Known for its picturesque beaches, especially the Silver Beach
  • Neyveli Lignite Corporation is located near to it.
  • The city is fast emerging as an industrial city.

Puducherry :

  • Main part of the Union Territory of Puducherry, located on the Coromandel Coast midway between Chennai and Point Calimere
  • Former French colony still has its imprints
  • Auroville is world famous
    • Auroville is a universal city (experimental township) in the making in south-India dedicated to the ideal of human unity based on the vision of Sri Aurobindo and The Mother.

Machilipatnam :

  • Located in the northeastern part of the Krishna Delta, as a minor seaport and headquarter of the Krishna District
  • Port from the old time, has a long history
  • It is being developed to reduce the pressure on the Vishakapatnam

Gopalpur :

  • Important sea beach and coastal town located in the southwestern part of Orissa
  • Its beach with coconut groves is characterised with sand dunes for several kms.
  • Often affected by the tropical cyclones
  • Has an ancient commercial port, now lying in ruins
  • Became prominant port during the British Rule

Kakinada :

  • A minor seaport and the headquarters of the East Godavari District, located in the north-western part of the Koringa Bay
  • One of the safest ports in the east coast of India due to the presence of a small island called Hope Island
  • Kakinada is the sixth largest city of Andhra Pradesh.
  • Most well planned city in Asia after Chandigarh.

Krishnapatnam :

  • Important port of Andhra Padesh in the Nellore district
  • Krishnapatnam Port popularly known as KPCL is a privately built and owned all weather, deep water port on the east coast.
  • Iron ore and granite are exported
  • Site of 4000 MW UMPP (Ultra Mega Power Project) awarded to the Reliance Power

Vishakhapatnam :

  • The deepest land locked and protected port on the Andhra Coast
  • A major port, handles the traffic of iron ore, coal, oil, fertilizers, agri products etc.
  • Ship building and repairing facility
  • Headquarters of the Eastern Command of the Indian Navy
  • Steel, petrochemical and fertilizers plants

Ganjam :

  • A minor port and coastal city in Orissa, to the southwest of the Chilka Lake
  • Agro–based industries, fishing, salt and fish processing
  • National Highway-16 (previously NH-5) and Chennai–Kolkata rail line pass through it

Paradeep :

  • A major port located at the northeastern corner of the Mahanadi Delta
  • A deep water and all weather port
  • Constructed during the Second Five Year Plan.
  • Handles the traffic of iron ore, coal, and other dry cargos.
  • Iron exported to Japan.

Dhamra :

  • Located to the northeast of Paradeep in Orissa.
  • Dhamra Port will become the deepest port of India with a drought of 18 metres, which can accommodate super cape- size vessels upto 180,000DWT.
  • Awarded responsibility to the Dhamra Port Company Ltd. A 50:50 joint venture of L&T and Tata Steel

Chandippur :

  • A minor seaport in the northeastern part of Orissa
  • Its beach is unique in that the water recedes about one to four kms during the ebb and returns at the time of the high tide
  • Location of the Indian Army’s Integrated Test Range (ITR)
  • A number of missiles have been launched from the ITR including Akash, Agni, Shaurya and Prithvi

Diamond Harbour :

  • It is located quite near where the Hooghly river meets the bay of Bengal.
  • It was earlier a stronghold of the Portuguese pirates.
  • It is minor port as well as a happening tourist spot.

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