In this article, You will know Major Grasslands of the World for UPSC Geography.
What are Grasslands?
A grassland ecosystem is a dry area of land dominated by grasses. Huge trees and shrubs are very rarely found in these regions, which is mainly because of the climatic conditions and other environmental factors, which do not withstand the plant’s requirements.
Grasslands are also called transitional landscape. In a grassland ecosystem, the vegetation is dominated by herbs and grass. These ecosystems are mainly found in regions, where there is a scarcity of water and not enough and regular rainfall to support the growth of plants and forests. The grassland ecosystem lies between the deserts and the forest ecosystems.
Savanna grasslands and temperate grasslands are some examples of grassland ecosystems. There are many other types of grassland around the world, which go by many names. Grasslands of South America are known as pampas and central Eurasian grasslands are referred to as steppes and so on.
Types of Grasslands
Grasslands are subdivided into two types, namely:
Tropical grasslands have dry and wet seasons that remain warm all the time. These regions are warm throughout the year, followed by dry and wet seasons. Tropical Grasslands are the ones which receive 50 cm to 130 cm rain.
Also, the tropical grasslands contain quite short plants which makes it an excellent hunting ground. For instance, the African savanna is one of the tropical grasslands.
In conclusion, the tropical grassland is a home for elephants, giraffes, lions, cheetahs, zebras, and other spectacular species.
Tropical Grasslands are:
- East Africa- Savanna
- Brazil- Campos
- Venezuela- Llanos
These grasslands are similar to tropical grasslands, except for the climatic conditions. They have cold winters and warm summers with 25 cm and 75 cm. of annual rainfall. Shrublands are the best example of temperate grasslands.
Moreover, these grasslands suffer extreme climates. In the cold season, the temperature can reach up Flooded Grasslands to 0 degrees Fahrenheit. While in the summer season it reaches up to 90 degrees in some areas. The precipitation in these grasslands is mostly in the form of dew and snow.
For instance, some vegetation that grows here are, cacti, sagebrush, perennial grasses, buffalo grass clovers, and wild indigos, etc.
Temperate Grasslands are:
- Argentina- Pampas
- America- Prairie
- South Africa- Veld
- Asia- Steppe
- Australia- Down
Grasslands of the World
|Steppe||Europe and North Asia|
|Savannah||Africa and Australia|
|Taiga||Europe and Asia|
|Grassland||Major Economic Activity|
|Pustaz||Rich black soil|
Abundant wheat production
Sugar from Sugar beet [Beta vulgaris, is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose]
Countries like Hungary, Ukraine, Romania, etc.
|Pampas||Alfalfa: nutrient-rich grass.|
Ranching, cattle rearing; Dairy products
Extensive wheat-producing region
Economy depends on wheat and beef export
|Downs and Canterbury||Sheep and Cattle rearing,|
Merino sheep: wool production
Sheep and Cattle rearing