Globalisation can be defined as a process in which the social life within different societies is increasingly affected by international influences based on different aspects like political and trade ties to shared music, clothing styles, mass media, etc. It is the free movement of goods, services and people across the world in a seamless and integrated manner. Insimpleterms, it is a process of growing integration and interdependence. It is seen as a complex series of economic, social, technological, cultural and political changes that have helped in increasing interdependence, integration and interaction among people and economic actors (companies) in disparate locations.
Although existant during ancient times, the impact of Globalisation has been felt at a far more accelerated pace in the past three decades as compared to ancient times when trade and cultural ties flourished amoung all other countries. The effect has been far reaching and has had different impact on different people.
For some, it has brought new job opportunities, while for others Globalisation has led to loss of livelihood. Because of it, there are differing views on the impact of Globalisation. There has been an argument that it has benefited the more privileged section, while the poor and not so privileged ones do not get much benefit.
Globalisation and Indian Society: Various Perspectives
They argue that the past history and the current economics have united together to create a new relationship where nations are uniting both economically and politically. Like other countries, India is also uniting so that It is not left out in this new globalized world. They believe:
- Globalization is leading to a borderless society, a world in which power of individual governments is weakening and transnational governance organizations are becoming increasingly important.
- The democratic social models implemented and protected by nation states are going to be challenged. The fall of USSR and India adopting a New Economic Policy in 1991 supports the belief.
- Increasing communication due to technological advances has helped in the creation of a global culture.
- Global civilization is bound to happen as more universal principles of economic and political organization are spread across the globe increasingly.
- They see the world economy as a single unit more than any other perspective does.
- They focus on the homo genising aspect of globalisation
They dismiss the fact that there is a development of a global culture through a global development structure. They believe:
- Globalisation process is more separated and regionalized than as a truly global world. They are of the view that the world is globalizing but different regions are not globalizing together. Instead, what we call globalisation is in reality regionalisation.
- Trading Blocs are being formed (Trans Pacific Partnership, Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership) which shows expansion of regional economic sectors and a cooperation of bilateral trade between countries, by discounting other multilateral countries not part of the block.
- A strong nation-state is needed to facilitate trade between countries and regulate the running of the global economy.
- They do believe in the globalized world but as per them, Globalisation starts regionally and then migrates towards a globalized economy.
Transformationalists argue that local cultures are not simply swallowed up by western cultures- rather people in developing countries select aspects of western culture and adapt them to their particular needs, a process which they call ‘glocalisation’. A good example of this is the Bollywood film industry in India, or the various ‘glocal’ manifestations of McDonald’s burgers.
They see globalization with both negative and positive impact, both homogenising and heterogenizing impact with emergence of identity based differences.
Effects of Globalisation: India
Globalisation is the intensification of world relations. It is the free movement of trade, capital, technology, people and culture across the globe. With Globalisation, there is a sharp increase in the level of Indian integration into the world relations after the structural adjustment program that began in the 1990’s. Globalisation has varied impact across all class groupings in India. While it is said to have a highly positive impact on the industrial class, entrepreneurial class and the professional class, the impact on the working class has been varied.
We are living in an increasingly connected world. The imprints of other cultures, societies and economies are encountered in our daily lives. The smartphones we use might be assembled in China, the clothes we wear might be manufactured in a factory in Bangladesh or South-East Asia and the company we are working for might be a multinational corporation. Globalisation has been taking place for centuries albeit at a slow pace.
Globalisation means different things to different people. Economists consider it as a step towards a fully integrated world market . The sovereignty of the state is challenged with the emergence of non-governmental power players in the world order . Globalisation is not an event, rather a process which originated with the liberalization and privatization of the economic sectors. It aims for the establishment of a borderless world. It talks of Vasudhiva Kutumbakam- the world is my family.
Factors aiding Globalisation are: Technology, Faster Transportation, Improved mobility of capital, Rise of MNCs.
Globalisation has a huge impact on the Indian society and has led to the transformation of the society from various perspectives:
Globalisation has changed the nature of governance and policy dimensions in the country. It gave a specific political and economic approach to the economic policies. There has been rise in Non-Government organizations and their special role in the governance of the country. The concept of good governance has been strengthened due to increasing Globalisation.
The role of government has transformed in more significant ways as the focus has moved towards empowerment from welfare. This has led to a policy change towards a rights based approach to governance.
Liberalization and privatization are seen to be offshoots of Globalisation which has changed the outlook of Indian economy. It has led to the Liberalization, Privatization and Globablization (LPG) era since 1991 which has completely transformed the economic policy of the country. Increase in foreign investments and adoption of technology in sectors like media, communication, defence and insurance have helped in improving the forex reserves of the country.
Liberalization is a term which comes from the philosophy of liberalism which advocates for greatest freedom for private individuals and least interference by state in private affairs.
Privatization is generally referred to induction of private ownership in publically owned enterprises or organization.
There have been debates of homogenization versus Globalisation of culture. Globalisation has transformed the social dimensions as well. It has influenced migration and has a huge impact on urbanization. It has drastically increased the pace of urbanization and has led to increase in gap between rural and urban sectors with respect to standard of living which also influences migration.
The social movements with respect to women safety, dalit movements, farmers’ movements, environment safeguards and others have been intensified and been affected by Globalisation. The gender dynamics is also changing due to the impact of Globalisation.
Impact on Institutions
Since time immemorial, marriage has always been regarded as a highly sacred institution which involves meeting of minds of two people. However, with changing features of society, very institution are inconflict with each other, for example the patriarchy is in increasing conflict with the independent agency /autonomy of women’s right. Globalisation has led to many positive as well as many negative impacts. Some of them are as under:
- Indian society has not been kind to the idea of love marriages. However, with increasing Globalisation, family members, especially elders have started to accept and appreciate love marriages in the same way as they used to accept arrange marriages in the past. Love marriages have seen an increasing trend and thus parental preferences have given way to children’s wishes or they accommodate children’s wishes through love cum arranged marriage.
- With more integrated economy , increased education and enhanced awareness in a globalized world, people from different caste and faiths are intermingling. This has also resulted in easing caste base rigidities. Once such instance of this kind of marriage would also result interfaith marriages, which visibly is on the rise in India. Economic independence has had a major rule in acertaining symmetry between conjugal pairs in nuclear families.
- Globalisation has broadened the mindset of young people as people tend to avoid child marriages unlike the past. It has helped in intensifying the fight against child marriages, rise in widow remarriages.
- With the dissemination of ideas of gender equality, the institution of marriage, in itself, is witnessing a shift to more egalitarian values in comparison to the earlier male domination and female subservience.
- Globalisation has reduced the sacredness of marriage as people are looking to be free from the rituals and commitments. Consequently, the institution of marriage is breaking down at an alarmingly fast rate. Today conjugal relationship is shifting from romantic love (forever for each other) to confluent love (relationship should benefit both)
- In a global world, people see marriage as a civil contract. Now a days, marriage is not seen as a religious sacrament. This would expose the institution of marriage to fickleness of human behaviour and make such an institution a very temporal one.
- Girls and boys are more open towards sharing apartments together even before marriage. This concept of live-in relationships is viewed, by many, against the culture of India.
- Other issues like serial monogamy. Marriage which is considered to be a sacred institution in India is facing challenges from Globalisation and is readjusting itself according to new norms challenging the older and rigid norms.
Family is a primary social group that came into existence to satisfy the need for reproduction. It is not of a sudden origin and has evolved over times and passed through different stages. The most striking feature of the Indian Family system is the existence of joint family system. The joint family exhibits joint property, sharing of common residence, practicing of common religion and mutual rights and obligations.
- Earlier, all the members of a family did the same type of work but after Globalisation the same family has adapted to different types of work depending on their availability and the economic benefits.
- The husband and wife are mostly employed thus improving the standard of living. In a notable change, say of women is also getting better as decisions are being taken together, thus improving gender equality.
- Globalisation has led to increase in social gatherings in place of religious gatherings.
- Globalisation has changed the decision making hierarchy, as even the opinion of children are seldom ignored. Today children are much aware of their rights and hence the physical punishment in schools and home is drastically reduced.
- Globalisation has forced many families to shift out of their village and town pushing them towards Nuclear families at the expense of joint family. This, in turn, harms the traditional family values. For example, urban born child doesn’t want to go to visit rural relatives.
- Globalisation affects children negatively as children are not able to spend enough time with family members which is making them more individualistic and self-centered. These changes make it difficult for the young generation to inculcate Indian cultural values. Today they are more engaged with electronic gadgets rather than family.
- Family has ceased to be unit of production and the voice of elderly in the family matters have decreased.
- Increased mobility of the younger generation in search of new employment and education opportunities has weakened the family relations. It has weakened the family bonding and the ties have started to loosen due to physical distance.
- Not only the structural but also functional transformation is taking place in the family system due to Globalisation. Today many function like education of children are taken by other institutions like school.
Family who used to take care of its vulnerable members is no more in a position to serve but the values of the family are still strong in India and the acceptance and rejection of traditional values of hierarchy depends on the experience shared by each family
Joint and Nuclear Family
In a joint family system, the number of dependents living under a roof is much larger. Those living with a joint family may include husband, wife and children, grandparents, married brothers, sisters, wives of sons, grandsons, granddaughters and other dependents and relatives.
Hallmarks of Traditional joint family system are:
- Common property
- Common finances
- Common kitchen
- Common leader
- Common Place of Worship
According to census 2011, in Delhi around 69.5% of households have only one married couple and less than 6% of all Indian Households have 9 or more people living in them.
Nuclear family is a family consisting of parents and their children, but not including aunts, uncles, grandparents, etc. Nuclear family is strongly on the rise due to factors like job relocation, real estate, impact of Globalisation and changing cultural attitudes.
The differences between the nuclear and joint families are in terms of composition, responsibility, bond of unity and affection, subsistence and freedom.
As man evolved, the social order evolved with him and this order is known as caste in India. It is well known fact that caste discrimination is rampant in India and is seen as a barrier in the nations growth. Rise in Globalisation has brought changes to the caste system both in a positive as well as a negative way.
- Rise in professionalism, improvement in education etc. has provided employment opportunities and thus is improving the conditions of vulnerable caste.
- The rigid caste system is gradually giving way to relaxed norms. Inter-caste marriages, intermingling and socializing with other castes is no longer regarded as a taboo.
- Increasing rationality in decision making with intermixing of thoughts from different cultures has reduced superstitious beliefs.
- Secularisation of caste: The institution of caste is detached from the ritual status hierarchy and attain the character of the power-group functioning in the competitive democratic politics.
- Rise in dalit movement For example, dalit panther movement was inspired from Black Panther movement.
- Despite Globalisation and its benefits, practice of untouchability is still prevalent in India.
- Globalisation has forced vulnerable castes towards informal sector doing menial jobs due to lack of requisite skills. For example, erstwhile untouchables have become manual scavengers.
- Caste based inequality is still a reality in many corners of the country as evident from dalit violence case at una and rohith vemula suicide.
Thus Globalisation on one hand has helped in diluting stringent caste barriers but it has not been able to completely uplift the marginalized castes
Globalisation has shifted the cultural build up of the world and has led to the formation of a global culture. Globalisation flattens out cultural differences, erodes local customs and beliefs, and spreads a secular way of life that is at odds with religion. Religion serves as the source of Globalisation and as a haven for those standing in opposition to its ubiquitous yet often subtle power. In both of these views, the relationship between religion and Globalisation is antagonistic – one of struggle and conflict thus putting religion in the background and Globalisation has a shared relation of struggle and conflict.
- Religion and Globalisation have been partners in historical change. In the past, religion, has been a carrier of globalizing tendencies in the world. The history of Christianity and its extraordinary growth as a world religion was a result of a link between its own global ambitions and the expansion of various political and economic regimes. Moreover, various new religions entered India which had a multidimensional impact on the culture of India.
- Globalisation paves the way to bringing cultures, identities, and religions in direct contact.
- Globalisation brings a culture of pluralism, meaning religions “with overlapping but distinctive ethics and interests” can interact with one another with ease. E.g world religious conference.
- Due to Globalisation people are reading essence of various religions which helps in building a more tolerant society. Even Gandhi’s view on secularism was influenced by the teaching of Islam and Christianity apart from Hinduism.
- The basic tenets of Globalisation like openness, individualism, freedom etc., stand against the religious parochialism. Even a theocratic state like Saudi Arabia is opening itself by allowing more freedom to women.
- Globalisation allows for religions previously isolated from one another to now have regular and unavoidable contact.
- Reform within religion- For example, gender equality within church. Recently a woman became a priest in church of England.
- There have been conversions to Christianity because of the increased financial and institutional support of western countries. For example, conversion of tribals by Christian missionaries during colonial times.
- Globalisation disrupts traditional communities, causes economic marginalization, and brings individuals mental stress, all of which create a backlash of religious parochialism as evident in 1979 Iranian revolution.
- Globalisation brings religions to a circle of conflicts that reinforces their specific identities. Relationship between religion and Globalisation is complex, one with new possibilities and furthering challenges.
Media plays a crucial role in promoting Globalisation. In fact, it is a part of the Globalisation process. Media revolution has converted the whole world into a global village. By turning on the TV sets, we can be aware of the latest developments around the globe through international news broadcasts. These new technologies have provided us the opportunity to move from a stagnant phase of ignorance to a modern era of science and logic. Students are able to study subjects of their interests. It has its positive as well as negative impact on print media, television, radio and others.
Newspaper, magazines and books are the primary medium of dissemination of information within society . The invention of printing press by john Gutenberg has opened the flood gates of knowledge to common masses. Industrial revolution has given a further boost to it. In India it has played a major role in awakening of masses and propagation of anti-colonial ideas, ultimately leading to the growth of nationalism. Some of the prominent newspaper of that time were The Calcutta Gazette, The Madras Courier, The Bombay Herald, Kesari etc.
In this globalised era, newspaper has assumed an international character in terms of increased focus on international stories, cooperation between the newspapers of various countries for investigative journalism for e.x., Indian express collaboration with the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ) and German newspaper Suddeutsche Zeitung in case of paradise papers. Similarly rise in literacy levels of Indians and incoming of new technologies has boosted the circulation of newspaper.
Electronic Media includes radio and television. Radio is still one of the cheapest and most convenient ways of information dissemination especially in rural areas. In India radio broadcasting started with ‘ham broadcasting clubs in Kolkata and Chennai in 1920’s. By 1950 there were 546,200 radio licences all over India. All India radio programmes were used to disseminate information about green revolution, warning about incoming disaster and other government schemes for the vulnerable sections of society.
However with the advent of globalization, there is increase in privately owned radio stations breaking the monopoly of all India radio. Apart from it, there is a proliferation of community owned radio stations.
In India television was introduced in 1959 to promote rural development. However with the advent of globalisation it witnessed changes at various levels. Firstly, there is rise in number of TV channels breaking the monopoly of Doordarshan For example, channels like star TV, ESPN etc. Secondly, change in taste of people in terms of content. Earlier it was directed towards information dissemination of the government and in the name of entertainment there was cultural program like Ramayana and Mahabharata.
However, today we find every kind of programs ranging from sports to action to bhakti channels to news channels. Thus there is an increase in specialization of content by TV channels. Thirdly, there is glocalisation-many foreign TV channels dubbed their programs in Hindi and other vernacular languages in order to reach wider audience. Similarly many TV shows in India are also inspired by the foreign shows like Kaun Banega Crorepati is an Indian television game show based on the British program Who Wants to Be a Millionaire.
The advent of social media has its underpinning in the information and technology revolution which is a major component of globalization. Since globalization includes transfer of ideas and culture, social media as an instant and democratic means of information dissemination plays a major role. Unlike the traditional media, social media is relatively free from the influence of government. Today social media is used in various sphere like during Arab spring Faceboook and Twitter were used for the mobilization of protestors. Similarly, many companies and entrepreneurs are using the platform to build a brand and promotion of their products, thus overcoming the geographical barriers.
Overall impact of media can be summed as under:
- The introduction of newspapers, magazine, internet and TV has immensely helped to spread information and has helped people to come together from all over the world. For example, the image of Aylan Kurdi on social media has forced the world leaders to ponder upon the problem of refugees in Europe.
- Mass Media helps to reveal the news of people misery so that concerned authorities can take necessary steps.
- Internet helps students by giving them access to millions of documents on almost every topic and subjects including science, arts, religion, education, commerce, industry, agriculture and law, For example,use of massive open online platform.
- Radio has completely transformed its utility by disseminating information especially to the rural and less technologically-advanced region.
- Increase in commercialization has forced many news channel to present news in a way people would like to watch. This, in effect, distorts the very objective of the news channel which is to present an unbiased news to the world. In short, it has led to negative effects of yellow journalism, paid media and others.
- With the work commitments of working parents, they get to spend very less time with their children. This, in turn, exposes children to vulgarity and pornographic material which affects the social, cultural and traditional values of Indian society.
- Cinema is facing challenges from digital revolution like including online platforms like Netflix and Hotstar. In addition, online piracy is another challenge.
The collapse of the socialist world has hastened the process of Globalisation. With the fall of communism people started enjoying the virtues of freedom and liberty which was unfathomable in communist setting. The significant political development due to Globalisation is the growth of international and regional mechanisms for political collaboration. Also, the rise of international government organizations and non-governmental organizations are effects of Globalisation. Some of its impacts are as under:
- It has led to universalization of non discrimination, equality, rule of law and accountability. This has helped in the development of Rights based approach to governance.
- It has helped in improving the public policies of the government by learning from the failures and success of other nations. For example, our Lokpal Act is inspired from the ombudsman of Scandinavian country.
- Globalisation has increased the influence of international organizations like IMF, World Bank and others through myriad checks and controls over internal policies of the nation. This has challenged the concept of sovereignty. For example, in exchange of IMF loan in Indian government had pursued 1991 structural reform.
- Globalisation has increased the role of Non Governmental Organizations. Many organizations influenced by other nations has been involved in various spurious activities. For example: Report by Intelligence Bureau about Green Peace and other organizations.
- It is leading to the homogenization of the political culture without much regard to context sensitivity. For example, promotion of democracy in countries like Afghanistan and Iraq through aid by several countries, without understanding the nuances and present state of order may lead to internal disturbances etc.
There is what is called Globalisation of law according to which the whole world lives under a single set of legal rules. There is Globalisation of commercial as well as contract laws in addition to the public laws. International firms have increased their fold and are providing services in India. For example, The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law was established by the United Nations General Assembly “to promote the progressive harmonization and unification of international trade law”.
- It is providing opportunities to lawyers in India to learn more professionalism, intricacies of contract and intellectual property laws.
- It also helps in improving the overall legal education in the country. For example, enactment of Arbitration and Conciliation Act in 1986.
- It has helped in reducing delays and benefited the clients through trade in legal services.
- There is a challenge to the judicial sovereignty as seen during ever greening of patents, and also during the criminal charges against Italian marines.
- The cost of the whole judicial process is increasing due to huge cost of these foreign law firms.
Concentration of Wealth and Deprivation
Due to Globalisation, one of the biggest negative aspect is the concentration of wealth. Currently top 1% of the Indian population owns more than 70% of the wealth and the bottom 50% just 1%. The informalization of the economy is also one of the primary reasons behind skewed concentration of wealth.
Also, Globalisation has led to displacements without any proper rehabilitation which has led to more deprivation of the already deprived and vulnerable section of the Indian populace. The privatization of health, education and other basic facilities have created havoc on the deprived section of the population as they are unable to get access to quality hospitals and quality educational institutions. This has led to creation of a huge gap between the haves and have-nots.
Indian Value System
Value system is of utmost importance as it is the value system that determines actions taken by people. Globalisation has given India new experiences, which has led to new values at the individual level as well as at the level of society. For Example: There are sufficient evidence to show the correlation between economic well being and increasing secularization.
- A new set of value system is causing the Indian citizen to start participating in the political dialogue and thus giving full meaning to democracy. The clamour for decentralization which led to 73rd and 74th amendment act, passing of RTI Act and Lokpal Act are few examples.
- More emphasis on competition and individualism is helping individuals to improve their skills and capabilities. The emphasis is on organizational discipline, teamwork, quality.
- At the social level, there are changes in the caste rigidities, acceptance of women in different economic field, change in attitude towards inter-religious and inter-caste marriages.
- There has been rise in materialism and consumerism in the society which is challenging the old cherished value system that had a spiritual tone. This is also the cause of rising inequality in the society.
- There is a rise in commodification and objectification of women which is influenced by the new value system.
- There is a loss of social values and cheerful blessing of togetherness. People are restricting themselves in social interaction. This is more evident in metro cities.
Education empowers everyone to mitigate most of the challenges faced in life and succeed. Knowledge attained through education helps open doors to a lot of opportunities for better prospects in career growth. Globalisation has impacted education around the world in many important ways.
- Availability of study books and information on the internet due to Globalisation has increased tremendously which allows student to read on any topic of interest.
- Scientific and technological innovations have made life comfortable, pleasant and enjoyable for students. Working professionals can attend online courses like skill share website.
- Increased access to quality education provides an opportunity to individuals towards higher social status and mobility. E.g., collaboration between foreign and Indian university.
- It highlights the potential benefits to the economy and possibilities of greater innovation. Even national intellectual property rights policy advocates this.
- Exorbitant cost factors have made higher and specialized education beyond the reach of poor and middle class students.
- Collabouration of Foreign universities with the Indian universities has increased the fees for medical, engineering and management studies making it very difficult for students from middle and poor class to pursue higher studies.
- Many a times, Education is being measured in terms of number of degrees a person holds rather than the amount of useful knowledge he possesses.
- Commodification of educatioh- today education is treated as commodity, which can be bought or sold in the market.
As borders are increasingly disappearing, people are increasingly free to move thus creating new opportunies as well as challenges to global health. It is difficult for national governments to provide services alone. International organizations must complement national governments to solve health issues. Globalisation has had many positives as well as few negatives. Some of them have been mentioned as under:
- There has been increase in accessibility to hospitals because of opening up of many private hospitals. E.g., Fortis and Apollo hospital.
- Health services can be provided across borders. For example, a range of telemedicine tools such as tele-diagnostics and tele-radiology in addition to medical consultation through traditional and electronic channels is possible.
- The quality of research and treatment has gone up as evident by foreign companies in India.
- Patients can travel abroad to receive health care or use certain facilities. Medical tourism has seen a rapid rise, especially in countries like India where treatment is relatively cheap unlike many western countries.
- FDI in health sector has brought new technology and practices that has improved socal gradient to health in India.
- Entry of multinational pharmaceutical companies in India has led to high cost of medicines due to their brand names, as against earlier medicine used to be generic.
- Entry of globally popular beverages and fast foods has contributed to the global epidemic of obesity by replacing traditional diets with calorie-rich and fat foods. For example, MacDonald and KFC fast food chains.
- A person suffering from an infectious disease could be halfway around the world in 12-15 hours and thus can function as a vector for that disease, e.g Zika virus.
The world is becoming more consuming, more crowded, and more connected. Growing population and quest for living a better life has put increasing pressure on our environment. Globalisation has a huge impact on the environment due to obvious reasons. Some of them have been mentioned below:
- Awareness and concern about environmental problems has increased considerably due to presence of number of international NGOs. E.g., Green peace protest against coal mining.
- Technological and financial support from international organizations to combat climate change fatalities have increased. E.g., Clean Development Mechanism.
- Increased use of renewable energy and decreased use of fossil energy resources. E.g., through International solar alliance.
- Increased adoption of innovative technologies and management practices for GHG emission reduction and carbon sequestration.
- Rapid industrialization due to Globalisation is causing excessive emission which is deteriorating environment leading to symptoms of climate change and global warming, especially in third world countries where natural resources are being depleted repeatly due to lack of formal structures and formidable laws etc.
- Land degradation due to the excessive use of fertilizers in order to increase the yield of crops.
- Degradation of ozone layer due to release of ozone depleting substances like chlorofluorocarbons.
- Excessive mining and deforestation to serve the ever increasing needs of Globalisation has caused displacement of millions of people without proper rehabilitation and resettlement provisions.
- Increase in vehicular pollution in a metropolitan city like Delhi, which is infamously termed as ‘gas chamber’.
Globalisation of Indian agriculture had its beginning in the 19th century when the British introduced railways in India. Indian Agriculture, since then, is linked with the international market. Globalisation has led to a substantial change in its composition from basic food staples when the scope for export markets were limited to higher value commodities/cashcrops presently. Some of its impacts are as under:
- New technological innovations like use of hybrid seeds, sprinkler irrigation has improved agricultural efficiency. India Israel partnership in the field of agriculture helps Indian farmer to conserve water in agriculture.
- Use of Biotechnology has helped in increasing the overall productivity of food grains, vegetables, etc. like use of GM mustard and GM cotton.
- Improved infrastructure, enhanced research and development wing and capacity development can help agriculture sector attain better rates of growth. Initiatives like soil health card and lab to land are welcome.
- Shift in mode of production- from feudal to capitalist (production for market). In some regions such as Punjab and Karnataka, farmers enter into contracts with multinational companies (such as PepsiCo) to grow certain crops (such as tomatoes and potatoes), which the companies then buy from them for processing or export. In such ‘contract farming’ systems, the company identifies the crop to be grown, provides the seeds and other inputs, as well as the knowhow and often also the working capital. In return, the farmer is assured of a market because the company guarantees that it will purchase the produce at a predetermined fixed price. While contract farming appears to provide financial security to farmers, it can also lead to greater insecurity as farmers become dependent on these companies for their livelihoods. Contract farming of export-oriented products such as flowers and gherkins also means that agricultural land is diverted away from food grain production.
- Due to Globalisation in agriculture, farmers are paying a heavy price for a better variety of imported seeds having resistance to diseases because of the patent rights imposed by WTO as highlighted by recent boll worm incident in case of cotton.
- Indian farmers have not been able to export their products to rich countries because of the inferior technology and the stringent quality parameters imposed by foreign countries. E.g earlier Europe ban on export of alphonso mango from india. The current protectionist policies by various countries is further decreasing income of Indian farmers.
- The large scale suicide by Indian farmers in Karnataka, Punjab and Haryana region is under the burden of heavy loans has a direct correlation to Globalisation. The entry of multinationals as sellers of agricultural inputs such as seeds, pesticides and fertilisers has led to the increased dependence of farmers on expensive fertilisers and pesticides, which have reduced their profits. It has put many farmers into debt, and also created an ecological crisis in rural areas.
Globalisation and technology are interrelated. Globalisation has led to need for more technology while technology has become an important facet of Globalisation as it connects more and more people. We are moving towards an increasingly border less world enabled by technology. Some of its impacts are as under:
- It has helped in the spectacular success of Information and Technology industry by dismantling the barriers of technology.
- Single purpose equipment for mass production is being replaced by flexible tools which can do multi task production. It has allowed industries to produce a variety of products efficiently in small batches. For example, in a modern car, various components made elsewhere and get assembled somewhere else. In Maruti Suzuki cars, engine is from Japan, while assembly is in Manesar, Haryana
- It has brought revolution in other fields like media, agriculture, services and others. It has also helped in producing new and better employment opportunities. Today we can easily see Jobs which remain open for 24 hours.
- More sophisticated transportation systems and vehicles have enabled us to work in areas that aren’t within walking distance of home like metro services has reached to all major areas in Delhi.
- Technology has allowed greater connectivity, especially for families who stay miles away but are connected through better internet connectivity like skype video chatting and rational pricing of phone calls.
- Globalization has increased the phenomena of cultural lag across India. Cultural lag is the idea that society has trouble keeping up with technological change. A tendency for social systems such as laws, ethics and norms to be slow to adapt to a technological change, this results in a period of maladjustment and a failure to manage new risks. For example , with the advancement in medical technology, child sex ratio became adverse in India owing to sex selective methods. This manifests traits of cultural lag as law, ethics are not able to catch-up with changing technology.
- With the advancement of technologies, there are ongoing debates of automation vs. jobs which have created a perceived threat of unemployment, especially among the unskilled labourers. According to World Bank, 69% of jobs are being threatened in developing countries like India due to automation.
- Globalisation and the technological revolution have led to neglect of traditional handmade industries thus, leading to loss of livelihood for many like decline of khadi industry.
Infrastructure is the essential building block of the economy. Transportation, communication, sewage, water and electric systems are all examples of infrastructure. Infrastructure enables trade, powers businesses, connects workers to their jobs, creates opportunities for struggling communities and protects the nation from an increasingly unpredictable natural environment. The economy needs reliable infrastructure to connect supply chains and efficiently move goods and services across borders. Infrastructure connects households through trade, investments, technology and capital infrastructures across areas to higher quality opportunities for employment, healthcare and education. Some of its positive and negative impacts are as under:
- Better infrastructure in the form of transportation and telecommunications helps in connecting people and communities breaking distance barriers.
- Better infrastructure has helped in bringing more funds and better resources in the form of technological changes. For example, better ranking in logistic index portrays a country as a favourable nation for investment.
- It has brought public private partnership (PPP) which has helped in improving the efficiency and economy of the expenditure on infrastructure.
- Rise of Crony capitalism especially in the infrastructure sector and thus wastage of public resources as evident in 2G spectrum allocation case.
- It has led to a more user pay mentality such as tolls at highways. The relationship between state and society has been largely reduced to economic logic.
Developments in world have undergone a radical transformation mostly because of increasing Globalisation characterized by increasing number and type of stakeholders organized into interest groups or advocacy groups or Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Their influence on public policy at local, national, and global levels and in nearly every aspect of policy-making and international relations has made them dominant actors in the development arena. NGOs and other civil society groups are not only stakeholders in governance, but also a driving force behind greater international cooperation through the active mobilization of public support for international agreements. NGOs like bachpan bachao aandolan has led to increased awareness regarding child rights and India’s ratification of many of ILO child labour clauses. Some of the positive and negative effects are as under:
- It has led to emergence of number of NGOs in several fields like human rights, environmental groups, food security and others like Amnesty International, Green peace, Oxfam and others which has helped in increasing focus in these fields.
- Due to active advocacy of NGOs, governments today are trying to balance development with environmental issues. For example, protest by Narmada bachao andolan against dam has led to National Rehabilitation and Resettlement Policy.
- They have helped in increasing participation of vulnerable and marginalized population by giving them voice and rights to them. E.g., the struggle of Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan has led to Right to Information Act.
- They have brought the finances to India for the upliftment of marginalized population. E.g., Melinda and Gates foundation.
- The reporting of spurious activities by international organization in order to undermine the development process in the country is a matter of concern. The issue has been highlighted not only in environmental regulations but also in the matter of humanitarian justice organizations.
- The money that they bring is used majorly for use by themselves which has even led to inflation in the region affecting the lives of the locals. This trend has been seen in many African countries.
Globalisation has considerably weakened traditional governance processes. Increasing economic integration has reduced the role of national governments while granting other functions to the corporate world. With the opening up of Indian economy in 1991, role of corporate sector increased considerably. There has been a rise in number of corporates and it is believed that corporate culture from the developed countries is affecting the corporates in India. Some of its impacts are:
- It has brought improved operational efficiency in the working of companies in India through inculcation of global practices and competition. Today various Indian rating agencies like CRISIL have came up to rate companies.
- It has helped in giving a bigger untapped market thus increasing the profitability and the company’s growth.
- It has helped in bringing corporate governance by incorporating global standards and practices like inclusion of independent directors in Board of Directors.
- With Globalisation, companies are pushing for gender equality by imparting education among their employees on gender equality. Many men are also coming forward and championing the cause of gender equality at work place. E.g., through he for she campaign initiated by UN.
- Work culture: E.g., appointment of happiness officer, celebrating birthday of company employees etc.
- Start up revolution: Many Venture Capitalist (VCs) firms are funding Indian companies like soft bank funding Ola.
- Globalisation has flushed the market with number of competitors and without enough resource support.
- Disparities in payment of officials at top and the officials at medium and low level have led to rise in equalities. For example, M . Naik tops the list of highest paid CEOs in India in private sector on Sensex. In FY 2015-16 he took home Rs. 66.14 crore as salary.
- Lack of adequate infrastructure and technology means many smaller companies could not compete with giants leading to closure of such companies.
- Corporates from India are facing tougher non-tariff challenges in the western world and thus the benefits have not been two way. H1B visa issues for Indian IT professionals will increase the cost of operation of Indian companies.
Public Sector Enterprise
Public sector played a vital role in achieving systematic and planned development in India. After independence, India was suffering from multiple problems and private sector was not in a position to take lead in the development of its various sectors simultaneously. Thus, in order to provide the necessary support to the development strategy of the country, the public sector offered the necessary minimum push for bringing the economy to a path of self sustained growth. However , with the advent of Globalisation, liberalization and privatization, PSU’s saw a considerable change. Some of the impacts of Globalisation are as under:
- It has helped to bring efficiency, economy and effectiveness in the working of public sector by challenging their monopoly. Foreign firms are encouraged to invest in sectors earlier reserved for the government, including telecom, civil aviation, power etc. Licenses are no longer required to open industries
- It has also helped in increasing accountability and transparency in their functioning through better acts and guidelines like the Right to Information Act.
- It has played an important role in reducing the disparities in the distribution of income and wealth by bridging the gap between the rich and the poor.
- It has led to closing down of various public sector enterprises or disinvestment of PSU which led to decreasing employment opportunities in the sector. For e.g., in the case of modern food, 60% of the workers were forced to retire in the first five year.
- It has increased the loss of these enterprises due to intense competition from the foreign company .
- Increasing contractualisation of workers and outsourcing of work. These workers don’t have much needed social security benefit.
Government Retreating from Social Sectors
With Liberalization, Privatization and Globalisation, Indian Economy has shaped up well to accommodate private sector in its development. Industrial activities in the private sector gained its momentum through the participation of both domestic and foreign private companies. However, the Government earmarked some specific areas in the field of industry, agriculture, infrastructure and trade for the private sector as allowing private players in strategic area could have been hazardous. Some of its impacts are as under:
- With plenty of private players in the market, consumers benefit with the best products at cheapest possible price. Ola-Uber rivalry has reduced the transportation cost.
- Private sector is providing an active support to the infrastructural sector of the country. They are playing a significant role in road transport, water transport, etc. e.g in Pune, there is large scale participation of private sector in water distribution.
- With greater awareness among the masses about their rights, the government is making a conscious effort to fulfill their demands by moving towards a right based approach by enacting laws like RTI, MNREGA and others.
- A more educated citizenry has improved efficiency in Government spending on social sectors.
- In case of scarcity of any essential commodities, the private sector has a tendency of resorting to hoarding and black marketing of such commodities which leads to exploitation of consumers. E.g onion and pulses hoarding during lean season.
- Private sector is guided by the motive of profit maximization having little consideration for the national objectives. It may, thus, adopt certain undesirable steps which may go against the interest of consumers as well as the nation itself.
- With more say of private companies, Major companies have a tendency to become monopolistic which has lead to concentration of wealth and economic power in the hands of few leading to inequality. Today market value of Apple is more than GDP of most countries.
- With the induction of private players in almost all sectors, the mentality of user pay is on the rise which is not so viable for poor and marginalized people. In some of the cities of U.S.A , even basic services like fire brigade are also privatized. Many players tent to exploit only developed market so that marginalized sectional regions are not benefited.
The informal sector largely consists of unskilled workforce. In the first decade of 21st Century, about 76 percent of all employments were in the informal sector. Some of the positive and negative impacts of Globalisation are as under:
- With more job opportunities in informal sector, there is less pressure on agriculture for creation of job opportunities.
- Globalisation has created more space for women in the economic workspace. This has led to a significant improvement of women in India’s socio-economic landscape. It has thus, helped in giving flexibility and opportunities to women
- In an era where finding job has got tougher due to high competition, especially at lower levels, informal workers are forced to work under pathetic working conditions with little job security, no perks or protections, work with low wages and are denied welfare benefits. The protections guaranteed to workers under different legislations are not complied with by the informal sector.
- Informal sector has led to contractualization of the labour which lacks affinity or loyalty towards the company thus hampering productivity.
- Company don’t invest in human resource through skill development.
Impact on Sections
The wave of Globalisation has greatly improved the lives of women worldwide, particularly the lives of those women in the developing world. Nevertheless, women remain disadvantaged in many areas of life, including education, employment, health, and civil rights. It has touched the economic and social lives of women profoundly by opening several avenues for women on the economic front which has helped in the empowerment of women. Positive approach to cultural and economic migration will facilitate women to be exposed to better prospects at the International level.
- There is increasing level of work force participation by women. In the formal sector, setting up of various MNCs has helped in opening up of multiple economic pathways for women thus making them economically independent.
- In the informal sector, it has helped in strengthening trade and export flows thus increasing the absorption of women in the main economic fold. For example: Kutch craft, an association of 110 crafts women’s groups, has helped in generating 6000 job opportunities since India has embarked upon the path of Globalisation.
- New jobs and higher pays have helped women in raising their self-confidence which is enhancing their say in decision making power of family.
- Globalisation has promoted ideas and norms of gender equality that have brought awareness and acted as a stimulant in their struggle for equitable rights and opportunities.
- Globalisation has been playing a significant role by bringing women in the mainstream of family and social settings. Changing role of women in family has created a threat to the old institution of patriarchy in India.
- With rise in nuclear families, it has become easier for women to assertively claim their rights. Women in India is getting inspired by women the world over to fight for their rights. E.g., recent protest after 2012 Nirbhaya incident.
- With the advent of global communication networks and cross-cultural exchanges, there seems to be a change in the status of women. Changing attitude towards women especially in urban areas is a big positive.
1. Despite several positives, glass ceiling still exit in most of the employment opportunities. Moreover, unemployment, underemployment and temporary work are more common in women than men.
2. With irregular availability of work, particularly in the unorganized sector, women are being forced to work for twelve hours a day which gives rise to health problems like respiratory problems, pelvic inflammatory diseases etc. E.g., women as bidi workers and also in garment industry.
3. The patriarchal attitude and cultural norms which has been challenged by Globalisation has been often manifested in the form of violence, glass ceiling, domestic and workplace harassment, etc. as highlighted by honour killing cases in Haryana against intercaste marriage.
4. Several traditional industries where women used to work in large numbers like hand loom and food processing have undergone changes in the forms of production with the introduction of machines and power looms thus leading to loss of employment for women in the sector.
5. Commodification of women, pornography and vulgar reality shows have also led to increasing gender violence, molestation, harassment, rapes and dowry deaths.
Thanks to Globalisation, women in India are now emerging from the shadows of past traditions into the new era of freedom and rights. In the long run, it becomes necessary to mitigate the negative consequences of Globalisation through enhancing of women’s skills with the help of innovative policies to create an enduring environment for their economic and social empowerment.
Feminization of Labour: It is a term used to describe the emerging labour relations due to the rise in global capitalism. It is a trend towards greater employment of women and of men who are willing and able to operate with these more feminized workplace. The global expansion of trade, capital flows and technology has increased formal and informal market opportunities for women due to their lower wages and the willingness to take on flexible and part time employment. Women were forced to work for lower wages without any job security or autonomy. The feminization of labour is partially attributable to neoliberal restructuring of the global economy referring to the changes in the production process away from large factory work sites to informal production.
The commodification of women is a term which describes women as objects. Manufacturers strategically market products toward women by exploiting their femininity and domesticity. These practices target women to maintain traditionally specified “feminine” roles and occupations, thus highlighting the subordination of women to men. Women are used as objects and commodification of women has been common in several ads of companies even of toys such as beauty products, Barbie dolls and others. Commodification and unquestioned gender stereotyping of women and their roles is one of the primary reasons for the failure of women empowerment schemes in India.
Globalization and aging
The decrease in the fertility rate and the changing roles of women made the society to look elderly in a different dimension. Elderly were considered as a social phenomenon in India till the early 1980’s. But now they are looked as an economic phenomena as the society is moving from humanistic (social) to materialistic (economic).
- Social change witnessed by India in the last decade show that many social categories has transformed into economic and political categories. Elderly cannot change themselves into a political category or an economic category as they are not an organized group. Resultantly, life satisfaction is decreasing and alienation is increasing in India.
- There is a constant conflict between caretakers and elderly. The Social exchanges are slowly shifting towards economic exchanges. When it is changing to economic exchange the elderly are exploited by the family and society.
- Society considers widows as marginal persons because of age and status. Ageing women in rural India today face a triple jeopardy. First of all the jeopardy of aging in a society, where old people are increasingly being perceived as a burden to a shaky economy. The second source of jeopardy is that of being a female in a male dominated predominantly patriarchal society, where femaleness is devalued. The third jeopardy is due to the existing conditions in which most women live. A large majority of women living in rural areas are under the grip of poverty or are dependents in urban areas.
- Empty nest syndrome is a feeling of grief and loneliness parents may feel when their children leave home for the first time, such as to live on their own or to attend a college or university. In the era of globalization, this syndrome is getting a permanency resulting in loneliness for parents.
Globalization and children
- Due to rise in dual career families, the primary group of children has changed. Now the interaction generally takes on virtual mode, resulting in epidemic of online games which is impacting, a child’s social development.
- Further, the problems of relocation by parents, decreases the social bonding, as the peer-group of children changes continuously.
Globalization and identity
- The rise of populism across the globe may be an inevitable result of relentless globalization. Flyperglobalization leads to increasing fissures in society as it picks winners and losers. Globalization drives wedges in society, sometimes between capital and labour, between skilled and unskilled labour, between regions, etc. When the majority starts to feel insecure due to continued globalization, its ire could either be directed against the elites or against minorities. The former leads to left-wing populism, as witnessed in Latin America, Spain and Greece, while the latter leads to right-wing populism as India any other European countries.
- A form of neo-traditionalization thus proceeds along with modernization”. The adaptive capacity of microstructures like caste, family and village community has shown the unexpected elasticity and latent potential of Indian social institutions. Consequently, many structural inconsistencies is arising out of the process of globalization in India. Some of These inconsistencies are:
- Democratization without spread of civic culture (education),
- Bureaucratization without commitment to universalistic norms,
- Rise in media participation and aspirations without proportionate increase in resources and distributive justice,
- Verbalization of a welfare ideology without its diffusion in social structure and its implementation as a social policy,
- Over-urbanization without industrialization and
- Modernization without meaningful changes in the stratification system.
India is home to second largest tribal population in the world, next only to Africa. The tribes in India are spread over the length and breadth of the country. Since the emergence of liberalization, privatization and Globalisation (LPG), the tribal areas subjected to various protests due to forced displacement in the name of economic development. In the name of better lifestyle to poor indigenous tribal people, the market forces have created wealth, many a times, at the cost of livelihood and security of these tribes in such areas.
- The exposure to media and other resources of mass communication have helped them in raising the voice against the injustice which has also led to creation of separate ministry of tribal affairs under the government and withdrawal of POSCO steel plant from odisha.
- Improved employment opportunities, education and lifestyle have challenged the caste rigidities and thus helped in improving the overall condition of the tribal population.
- Improving health benefits through better medicines and life saving drugs have helped in improving the overall life expectancy of the tribals.
- There have been challenges to their traditional employment and ways of living. Also, displacements due to coming of various MNCs have affected their livelihood. E.g., possible displacement to land acquisition for bullet train.
- Lack of effective legal protection to the tribals and their involuntary displacements has eroded their sociocultural heritage in the form of language and culture.
- Patenting of their long use plants for medicinal purpose has increased the cost of health maintenance.
- Due to environmental degradation, they are getting affected badly and in result there has been ban on some of their traditional practices like shifting cultivation.
A large chunk of tribal population is still leading a marginalized life and Globalisation has only led to increase in their hardship due to lack of effective support from the government.
The process of Globalisation has made deep inroads into India’s socio-economic and cultural life. Not only has it affected all aspects of human life, it has also influenced the social institutions to a great extent. In order to promote the socio-economic justice, especially to the under privileged like the scheduled castes and Dalits, many affirmative measures were introduced in the Indian Constitution. In addition, a lot of welfare schemes were initiated for the upliftment of Dalits.
- Globalisation as a new world economic order promises of more prosperity, progress and freedom for all For example, rise of dalit capitalism also manifest this thought.
- Reservation in public employment has played a crucial role in the process of advancement of the dalits. Due to reservation the share of dalits in various government and semi-government services have increased substantially.
- Reservation in the educational institutions and financial assistance in the form of scholarships provides them greater access to quality education.
- NGOs has given them voice against the oppression. E.g., Navsarjan trust was established by dalit right activist Martin Macwan. Which raises voice against Dalit atrocities.
- Globalisation process has directly hit the traditional occupations of dalits. Their livelihood and specialized occupation has now been replaced by global capitalistic productions. Easy availability of mass production goods from latest technology based industries at cheap prices has proved to be a big challenge for their traditional occupation
- The pro-market stance of Globalisation has led to the widening of the gap between the privileged few and the large mass of the marginalized sections of the society including the SCs and Dalits.
- Globalisation further led to marginalization of the already marginalized sections of the society as the underprivileged class lacks skill to compete with others in an open economy. With privatization, the early benefits of reservation have also started to disappear. Today government is not the dominant job provider .
- Dalits, SCs and other unprivileged sections of society face enormous difficulties in accessing quality education and cost-efficient healthcare due to increasing commercialization of services.
- Vast majority of dalits live in rural areas. Mechanization of agriculture has further compounded the problems of Dalits and SCs as vast majority of Dalits are dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. Declining work opportunities has led to rural to urban migration leading to slum proliferation.
Human capital is important for the development of an economy. Globalisation has led to:
- Globalisation has reduced barriers between countries which has helped in migration to different countries in for work. For example, people from Kerala migrating to gulf countries and working as blue collared employees has provided them with better economic opportunities.
- It has helped in dissemination of better work culture and sharing of internationally accepted labour standards like regulation of child labour.
- With more finance and better technology, there is increased capacity of labour, especially in developing countries which creates new opportunities for work and production.
- Globalisation has broughttechnological advancements which has led to decrease in labour requirements leading to unemployment especially in chemical, manufacturing, cement industries.
- It has also led to a downward pressure on wages, increasing job insecurity and the overall informalization of labour. It has led to rise in contractual labourers thus also indirectly affecting the labour movements.
- The traditional nature of ‘work’ might disappear due the rapid advancement in technology, while at the same time creating new and innovative occupations in favor of the highly specialized professions.
- Lack of new job openings, and a deterioration of real wage rates are the consequences of Globalisation in most developing economies, which were unable to adapt the new technologies.
- Deterioration in working condition: The Mines Act 1952 specifies the maximum number of hours a person can be made to work in a week, the need to pay overtime for any extra hours worked and safety rules. These rules may be followed in big companies, but not in smaller mines and quarries. Moreover, sub-contracting is widespread. Many contractors do not maintain proper registers of workers, thus avoiding any responsibility for accidents and benefits.
- Exploitation of migrant worker: In many industries, the workers are migrants. The fish processing plants along the coastline employ mostly single young women from Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala. Ten-twelve of them are housed in small rooms, and sometimes one shift has to make way for another. Young women are seen as submissive workers.
- Lack of trade unionism: Lack of bargaining power of trade unions due to decline of formal employment opportunities in industries.
Globalisation has its effect on all aspects of life, including the construction, imagination and regulation of sexuality and transgender. In issues of sexuality, as in other spheres, Globalisation is perceived to have increased inequalities. Some of the impacts of Globalisation on transgenders are as under:
- Globalisation has helped in giving them voice through transmission of ideas from outside India. The increasing recognition outside has influenced their social movements in India. It is evident from NALSA judgement in which supreme court has realized the rights of transgenders.
- It has also helped in moving away from the binary system of gender prevalent in the past.it will help in mainstreaming of transgenders e.g., Manabi Bandhopadhyay is the 1st transgender college principal.
- In a global world, the basic aim is seen to be related to capitalism which looks for profit through efficient business. Lack of skill has not provided the transgenders with any specific economic opportunity till now.
No society is static, and the history of every continent has been marked by significant migratory movements at every stage. International migration has always consisted of the ‘structured’ movements of individuals in response to changes in economic, political and social conditions. Many countries are placing restrictions on the admission of those seeking to improve their economic prospects and/ or to escape persecution. Despite the number of asylum seekers in Europe and North America, African and Asian countries bear the greatest burden of refugees. Some of the impacts on society due to the refugees are as under:
- It has helped in giving recognition to refugees and understanding these issues like through Refugee Convention 1951.
- The cultural transformations brought about by international migration leads to cultural cultural intermingling as different cultures interact and develop to form a mixture of cultures.
- It leads to better understanding of humanitarian values as people recognize the situations that led the refugees to migrate. Increase in foreign aid and condemnation of foreign intervention in Syria/Libya.
- It has led to better economic opportunities thus improving their standard of living. E.g., Germany has accepted many refugees.
- It has created socio-economic problems in the destination country and thus they face the wraths of the native population. For example, Rohingya refugees in Assam and Bangladesh
- Rising Islamophobia as many migrants are muslims.
Youth play an important role in the development of the economy. Globalisation offers economic opportunities and benefits, but comes with substantial social costs that often appear to affect young people disproportionately. Youth are considered to be the most benefited sections through Globalisation as it has helped in opening up new avenues of job opportunities, education, better lifestyle and salaries.
- Globalisation has provided youth access to lot of knowledge sources including internet, media-print and social, and radio making them self confident e.g., online videos on you tube.
- Greater Knowledge and high confidence allows youth to take independent, rational and unbiased decisions.
- Globalisation has led to the formation of national policies and laws that promote youth development and protect young people from exploitation and human rights abuses, including labour laws, laws concerning minimum age of marriage, inheritance laws, and laws that prevent trafficking of humans. National youth policy talks about holistic utilization of youth as a resource.
- Globalisation has highlighted the importance of imparting education, training and requisite skills to young people for providing them a platform to become successful participants in the labour market. E.g., National Skill Development mission aims to impart skill over 40 crore people in India in different skills by 2022.
- With more awareness about their socio-political rights through social media and internet, youth are more vocal towards their right. Consequently, government is ensuring more participation of people in policy making by bringing them in the decision making process through consultations, surveys, etc . In 2014, 14 MPs are between 25-40 years.
- Changing value system of youth due to less social interaction at individual and societal level is a cause of concern as they are drifting away from great values of Indian culture like respecting the elders, taking care of the old age parents, etc.
- Lack of physical activity has made youth follow a sedentary lifestyle leading to health disorders like depression, obesity and high blood pressure. Resorting to unhealthy health practices like smoking, drinking and drug abuse increases the problem.
- In the absence of strong emotional connect with their family members, youth place a strong priority on money and possessions which leads to myriad problems, including depression and anxiety . It leads to increasing level of suicidal tendency especially among educated and unemployed youths.
Globalisation integrates the economies and people around the world and for any economy to do well, role of middle class is important. Consequently , middle class gets severely impacted by changes in the socio-economic and political sphere. Some of the impacts of Globalisation are as under:
- Globalisation has unfolded big opportunities for lots of people especially the upper middle class. The students from premier institutions are walking off with unheard of pay packages. IIMs passed student get salary in 6 digits.
- Entrance of global brands has helped the middle class in giving plethora of choices with respect to their daily household belongings by increasing competition and reducing prices. E.g for beauty soap, Indian brand cinthol is competing to foreign brands like dove and lux, leading to reduction in prices.
- Globalisation has provided middle class women education and employment opportunities that has changed the way society looks at them. It has helped middle class women in improving their living standards not only economically but also socially. E.g chanda kochhar is ICICI bank CEO.
- The Indian middle class is getting better opportunities due to opening of markets and increasing presence of MNC’s. Also, availability of jobs in several countries has increased the strength of Indian diaspora.
- It has led to more nuclear families and there is a loss of social and cultural values due to westernization.
- Agrarian crisis among the middle class groups has increased in recent times. This has created issues related to reservation due to their poor economic opportunities. This is evident in recent protest by jats and patidar after agrarian distress.
- Emergence of upper and lower middle class due to unequal benefits and the rising burden of health, education and other basic needs fulfillment.
- Globalisation has led to loss of livelihood to many middle class businessmen due to import of cheap goods produced in countries like Bangladesh and China.
- Increasing automation due to advancement in technologies has led to loss of labour. Today many clerical jobs are being taken by computers.
- Globalisation has considered skills and merit as the basis of social evaluation which allows the middle class to access the fruits of development with growing opportunities for them.
With high-speed internet , a culture of teamwork promoting platforms and a common language, people across the globe are working together and Indian startups now have the opportunity to collaborate with their foreign counterparts and explore new markets without having to compromise on processes. Thus there has been growth of a creative minority, who are open to challenges and risks that accompanies it. This is the new Class termed as entrepreneurs. Some of the impacts of Globalisation on entrepreneurs are:
- Globalisation facilitates technology entrepreneur-ship by fostering the rise of innovation ecosystems. This might include engagement between new ventures, and large multinational enterprises. For example, soft bank financing OLA, Grofers etc.
- Globalisation facilitates transnational entrepreneurship. Diaspora networks of emigrants to various countries take what they have learnt in corporations and use it to create their own businesses in the same or similar sectors. Billionaire IITian Prem Watsa is called as Warren Buffet of Canada.
- Globalisation facilitates social entrepreneurship. This involves creating wealth while simultaneously addressing vexing societal problems such as environmental degradation, poverty and poor health. For example, Harish Flande, founder of SELCO has founded a cooperation that promotes renewable resources in rural india.
- Recognizing the importance of entrepreneurship in India, the government has been taking steps like startup India, stand-up India and Atal innovation mission to encourage entrepreneurship.
- An entrepreneur faces many problems related to management of business, especially while starting the venture in this age of Globalisation. E.g start up like Taskbob, shopo and stayzila close down their company.
- Entrepreneurs face problems in creating an effective marketing plan due to which they are unable to sell the products or services.
- Entrepreneurship is perceived to be restricted to the elite sections of the society leaving a vast majority of the population including women and marginalized sections. In 2017, only 17% of startup have female founder.
- Many entrepreneurs fail to sustain themselves in the world of cut-throat competitions.
People involved in some form of business for generating income by utilizing human, physical and financial capital to ensure economic growth and development is termed as business class. Some of its impacts of globalization on business class are as following:
- It has provided with opportunities for investment in startups and the business of choice for business houses. E.g., Tata Capital Innovation Fund.
- Opening of Indian economy has allowed more wealth and prosperity to Indian businessman. E.g., Tata motors acquisition of Jaguar.
- Owing to huge concentration of wealth, there is huge division even among the business class people giving rise to inequality.
Civil society plays a vital role in the formation of public policies to meet the common goals and aspirations of a global citizenry. It has played a significant and stimulating role in forging an effective alliance to reorient the mechanisms, processes and policies that underpin the functioning of an economy in the globalized world. Some of the impacts of Globalisation on Civil Society are as under:
- With the advent of Globalisation, civil societies got more organized, formal and structured. Moreover, it also started receiving funds from international organization for specific cause. For example, Oxfam trust, American india foundation etc.
- With increasing allocation of funds, many international civil society organizations opened their branch in India which helped India in covering various developmental spheres which were not touched previously.
- Civil societies have started to behave as a platform for interactive decision making with advanced communication channels. The timeliness with which civil societies have been able to foresee and respond to impending issues have helped ward off frictions in economies and societies.
- More equitable returns and a virtuous integration of developing countries into the global system.
- Civil society organisations incorporates representatives onto their boards from the different fields of interests thus diversifying opinion set .
- Though Civil society organizations have got a rightful voice against societal problems, many a times these are misused which leads to anger, violence and class war between different classes of societies. Recent IB repot highlight loss upto 2-3% of GDP of india.
- As the civil society organizations are getting formal, even these organizations are being accused of corruption and undemocratic attitude. Even only 10% of NGO file income tax return in India.
For the civil society to achieve democracy, freedom and social justice, it needs to move beyond its middle class orientation and transform itself into a more inclusive and rights based sphere of political activism.
Farmers are the backbone of any civilization as everyone is associated to farming in someway or the other . They provide food and thus directly affects the health of society. With Globalisation, farming practices have altered significantly. Some of its impact are as under:
- Farmers have got an able support from NGOs against some pressing issues like falling prices of agricultural products, against multinational companies in agriculture.
- Farming has provided prosperity through increase in trade opportunities thus improving their livelihood.
- Globalisation has provided farmers with better quality seeds that have helped them to increase their product yield.
- With advanced technologies, farmers have better acqess to weather forecasting system which reduces chances of crop failure.
- Strong patent protection in the modern age limits the use of such seeds of the protected varieties like terminator seeds in the next season which increases the cost of agricultural production.
- Rise in automation due to technological advancements has led to disguised employment and also rise in number of marginalized farmers especially impacting the rural women.
- Children of farmers are moving out of agriculture in search of new employment opportunities as they don’t see the farming business lucrative enough.
- With Globalisation, large farms are displacing smaller farm in the global marketplace as larger farms are controlled by giant multinational corporations.
- There is a growing perception that Globalisation has majorly helped only the rich farmers as they have got new investment opportunities in the agro-based industries.
- Increasing privatization in this phase of Globalisation has led to rise in the cost of seeds and pesticides which led to increasing farmer suicides is a post Globalisation phenomenon.
- Land acquisition by state at cheap prices for private industry e.g in singur for tata nano.
Globalisation of Culture
Globalisation has a wide role to play in every sphere of life. Free exchange of views and ideas due to change in socioeconomic conditions and advancement in technologies has resulted in a major transformation in the way people live. The deep rooted traditions and customs prevailing in India have given way to newer way of living where people from different caste, religion, region mingle with each other and share their happiness and problems together. As social relations expanded globally through the creation of global networks and communities, the world has become a global village. Moreover, various means of social media, telecommunication and internet is playing a big role in connecting people and spreading culture in this age of Globalisation. Everything that we do these days like the food we eat, the dress that we wear, the tunes to which we dance, the language we use to communicate has been impacted by Globalisation.
Increased interaction between people at individual, societal and governance level beyond national boundaries has reduced the world into an interdependent global village. With the intermingling of several cultures, different cultures bring different aspects shaping a new culture made out of different cultures. This growing development of communication leads to cultural homogenization. Cultural homogenization occurs naturally when the society emphasizes or de-emphasizes aspects of your identity. It can be seen at different levels. Certain values of Globalisation like modernization, democracy, promotion of English language, food habits and consumerism have led to a uniformity and imposed American culture. On the economic front, the corporate culture has been able to make inroads and has also influenced the work culture in India.
Language: Globalisation is readily increasing in today’s modern world. This increase in Globalisation has many effects on language, both positive and negative which further affects the culture in many ways. However, with Globalisation allowing languages and cultures to increasingly spread to different corners, it has forced many indigenous languages and cultures into extinction.
Languages, through vocabulary, greetings or humor are an essential medium through which communication across culture develops. Knowledge of different languages enables us to perceive new horizons, to think globally, and to increase our understanding of ourselves and of our neighbors. Though people are now habituated to speak more than one language, but the use of English as the global language has increased rapidly. English is distinguished from the other languages by having very significant numbers of non-native speakers.
However, with more emphasis on a few languages, other languages are losing relevance out of which some languages are teetering on the brink of extinction. Moreover , with the extinction of traditional languages, even the traditional knowledge and the associated cultures of indigenous people are getting extinct.
Food: Globalisation of food began centuries ago. Many cultures incorporate foods that originated thousands of miles away. For example, potato is from S. America and red chilli from mexico. Globalisation has led to significant changes in the food systems across the globe. It has increased the variety and availability of food overall. However, with the entry of large number of multi-national companies, small food producers and traditional food markets are finding it tough to survive with the improved standards, quality and safety of food at competitive price. Pizzas, burgers, Chinese foods and other western foods have become quite popular which has negatively impacted the lifestyle of people especially the youths.
However, Globalisation has not only led to imposing of western and modern ideas in India but also has led to Glocalisation (refers to mixing of the Global with the Local). In case of food, even McDonald sells only vegetarian and chicken products in India and not its beef products. Also, it offers vegetarian food during the Navratri festival.
Dressing: For ages, clothing styles have been one of the most obvious indicators of cross-cultural exchange. Over the past few decades, the spread of fashion across cultures has echoed the changes in culture and economy that Globalisation has brought. Convenience and comfort of western dresses have pulled people, especially young generation, to move away from traditional outfits to western and modern dresses like t-shirt, jeans and shorts. Due to lack of demand of traditional wears like khadi, traditional handloom industry is struggling to survive in the market.
Popular Culture: India is famous for its variety of dance and music forms. With Globalisation, Indian classical music has gained worldwide attention which has helped the revival of the industry. Moreover, foreigners are learning Indian classical dance forms like Bharatnatyam , Kathakali and Kuchipudi. At the same time, Indians are getting attracted towards foreign dance forms like salsa, hip hop and other western dance forms. However, the folk and tribal music is getting extinct as it has been marginalized by the penetration of global pop music. In the field of music, there is a rapid growth of Bhangra pop, India pop fusion music and even remixes. English movies are being dubbed in Hindi to increase the marketability which helps in increasing the reach to a large number of audiences.
Globalisation has created an impulse towards understanding of the local cultures and preserving them in order to spread the Indian culture globally. Also, global tourism has led to cultural revival as well as homogeneity in response to tourist demands. India’s spiritual and cultural power like Yoga, Ayurveda, Meditation and spirituality has received global attention and appreciation.
The characteristics of Indian society and culture have seen a considerable change as a result of Globalisation. Nuclear families are becoming a norm, youth are increasingly adopting western lifestyle and people are becoming consumerist in their thinking. There are clashes in values among the elders leading to generation gap and marriages are breaking up because of modern lifestyles. Moreover, western culture has been accused of leading India towards cultural degeneration.
Retreat of Cultural Nationalism
Cultural nationalism refers to the nationalism that is believed to have existed not due to any political or social contract but due to shared past and cultural affinities. Globalisation has helped in making societies multicultural. Not only has Globalisation helped in strengthening freedom of choice, individual choice, rationality and a tolerance for differences, but also has helped in bringing a new set of generation with more rationality, humanity, tolerance and respect for other practices. There has been a growth of more self selected culture which has led to the retreat of cultural nationalism. However, perceived fear from Globalisation has forced certain sections of society to turn towards ethnic chauvinism. There have been instances of cultural nationalism from time to time as there has been instances of binary views which can be turned as nationalist or anti-nationalist leading to curtailment of the freedom of speech.
Commercialization of Indigenous Knowledge
Indigenous Knowledge refers to the perennial practices that have been developed, evolved, preserved and utilized over ages by local communities. This knowledge extends over a variety of realms, especially medicines and agriculture which is disseminated to younger generations through stories and rituals by word of mouth. They are basically intellectual activities that has evolved across centuries at the community level and thus hold importance for the entire community. A part of this has been described in ancient classical and other literature codified in ancient scriptures in native languages but most of them are not documented.
Traditional knowledge may have high commercial value, in particular, medicinal effect or properties which might be effective in curing an ailment. This makes a good reason for corporations and individuals to go for patent protection of such knowledge based inventions to gain monopoly for the same. It is pertinent to mention that something that is part of public knowledge in one region of the world might be totally unknown to the other regions. In the past, there had been cases where such knowledge were monopolized through patent. Patent for wound healing properties of turmeric in 1997 at US patent trademark office (USPTO), antifungal properties of Neem at European patent office (EPO) in 2005 are two such misappropriations of India’s traditional knowledge.
Globalisation has commodified and privatized knowledge, resulting in a knowledge economy. Indigenous knowledge has not been exempt from this privatization. Knowledge that was in the public domain, owned by communities and passed down from generation to generation, has been privatized by applying intellectual property rights (IPRs) that confer rights on individuals, thus, effectively robbing whole communities.
The Ministry of AYUSH had established Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL) in collabouration with Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). It is worth mentioning that India is the first and the only country in the world to have setup an institutional mechanism to protect its traditional knowledge in order to prevent the grant of erroneous patents. To facilitate the protection of country’s traditional knowledge, access of TKDL has been provided to International Patent offices (IPOs) under International Agreement. Already, TKDL has been successful in preventing the grant of wrong patents in 220 cases.
Globalisation and the knowledge economy have exposed the potential value, which ‘Indigenous Knowledge’ has yielded to the world’s powerful multinational corporations. At the same time, Globalisation has negated indigenous knowledge by viewing it as untried and untested unless processed by Western technology. It has also been individualized and commercialized to the point where symbols that are held sacred by communities are trivialized as slogans and logos, which are used and patented. India’s success in safeguarding its traditional knowledge by the creation of TKDL has already influenced many developing countries. Even WIPO (World Intellectual property Organization) has appreciated India’s effort in protecting indigenous traditional knowledge.
Globalisation refers to the economic integration of national economies through free trade and free capital mobility. This leads to migration of people in search of better work opportunities. People migrate for different reasons economic, social, political or environmental. Globalisation diminishes the national boundaries through inter-linkages, especially economic . It has led to change in demographic factors that influence migration. The pull factors as well as the push factors have intensified in this globalized world.
The pull factors include better employment opportunities, quality services, adequate health facilities, better education facilities, trade centres, institutional setups and the overall availability of opportunities. There has been an increase in employment opportunities due to setup of various MNCs and in the informal sector. Also, the education opportunities have changed and improved in the urban areas.
The push factors have intensified because of the lack of resources in the rural areas, transformation of land and displacement due to coming of industries, lack of basic amenities, lack of safety, crop failures, floods, droughts and poverty. Also, huge disparity in the standard of living between the rural and urban areas has led to increase in migration.
Since 1991 the outward migration phenomenon has changed as Indians are moving towards the western developed countries more compared to earlier trends. The reasons for it are:
- Better education opportunities especially in higher education.
- Increased employment opportunities with higher pay and thus an improved standard of living.
This phenomenon has created brain drain and the focus has turned towards improving the internal infrastructure in the country.
McDonaldization is a byproduct of Americanization or westernization which is part of a wider phenomenon of Globalisation. It is manifested when a culture adopts the characteristics of fast food restaurant. It is the moving away from traditional to rational modes of thoughts and scientific management. The four major dimensions of it are efficiency, predictability, calculability and control. In the fast paced life, it provides the time advantage and are also not so costly making it affordable for the middle class. McDonaldization is reducing people to people contact and the intra family communication is getting severely affected. Traditional foods are losing popularity as they are finding hard to remain relevant in a competitive market Some of the examples of McDonaldization from the Indian point of view are:
- Proliferation of the fast food chains like dominos, pizza huts etc.
- Using internet for research and assignments instead of referring books from libraries.
- Online shopping, using card for cash transfers.
Hybridizationhas become part of an ongoingtrendincultural production, with both the Globalisation and localization of the culture industry. Hybridization, however, is not merely the mixing, blending and synthesizing of different elements that ultimately forms a culturally faceless whole.
It is development of a new culture by merging of two or more cultures through constant contact and interaction. Cultural hybridization emphasizes on mixing of cultures as a result of Globalisation and localization, thus producing a new and unique hybrid culture that is not reducible to either local or global culture. Hybridization, however, is not just the mixing, blending and synthesizing of different elements. They often generate new forms and make new connections with one another giving way to a new hybrid culture.
One example of a hybrid cultural identity could be an educated youth in India who despite being integrated in the global fast paced technological world may still continue to be rooted with the traditional Indian values like arranged marriage, caring for their parents in old age. Thus, the hybrid culture involves blending of traditional values with other imported global values.
After the declaration of 21st June as International Yoga day by the United Nations, Yoga has cut across cultural and linguistic barriers and helped in connecting world to India. Yoga has got worldwide recognition and appreciation and its benefits have been well accepted throughout the world.
Yoga has long been considered as the soft power for the country and Globalisation has helped in giving new life to it. Huge interest shown by the western world has increased its following now in India. In the last few decades, active contribution from various gurus has helped in the popularization of Yoga. They are transmitting the culture of India through Yoga and popularising ancient Indian art.
Globalisation symbolizes a world in motion which provides a new way of life with vital implications for individual and the society. Though it has helped in bringing a lot of benefit to Indian economy, it has also widened the gap between the rich and poor. In case of India, there is need for self reliance and self sustenance with emphasis upon indigenous and traditional production and knowledge system. This would help in improving the infrastructure in the country which would better help in reaping the benefits of the Globalisation. There is need to imbibe Globlization judiciously by adopting the different facetes incrementally so that social upheavals are wanded off. However, there is an increasing trend towards protectionism and resurgence of Natiolist Jingoism which may either thwart or re-direct the course of globalization.