The introduction of new technology in agriculture has transformed the mode of agricultural production. Resources other than land have assumed importance. Resources such as tractors, mechanized ploughs, pump sets, power threshers and other are acquired through the market Today even if one has not inherited land through the traditional channel it is possible for one to join the class of landowners.
- In the wake of changing mode of production the composition of the traditional landowning class is changing in the country. Earlier, most of the landowners inherited land from their ancestors. Land could not be purchased in the market because the land market was not fully developed. But this situation has changed now.
- The restructuring of agrarian system has set in as a result of the land, the reforms and the Green Revolution. In this fashion, a new class of farmers is emerging consisting of persons with different skills and experiences. They no longer belong to the traditional landowning upper castes. They are the people who have retired from the civil and military services and have invested their savings in agricultural farms. This is the story behind the emergence of Gentleman Farmer.
- This group now attracts the people who are educated and wish to make agriculture their vocation. The increased profitability of agriculture is the primary reason behind it These agricultural farms are run like business firms with all features of modern organizations. In this respect, there is a substantial difference between the traditional agricultural system and the emerging system.
- The emergence of capitalist farmers is another important development in independent India. The question whether and to what extent capitalism has penetrated Indian agriculture is still being debated. But the trend in agriculture as in industry is clearly towards infusion of capitaL
- A capitalist form of wage labour agrarian system has replaced the traditional customary land relation. There is a clear transformation from the peasant family farms to the commercial capitalist farms.
- A powerful class of rich peasants, undoubtedly; existed even earlier but they could not be characterized as capitalist farmers because there was no capitalist penetration in agriculture as such. However, in the recent past, apart from the land reforms, other forces are at work in agricultural sector.
- Introduction of new technology along with several other schemes of agricultural development have facilitated a small section of rich peasantry to emerge as powerful commercial and capitalist farmers.
- Extensive facilities and resources such as supply of high yielding variety of seeds, fertilizers, and improved implements, irrigation as well as facilities of credit and improved transport and communication- all have been fully utilized by these farmers.
- The capitalist farmer hires labourers for accomplishing her/his requirements.The actual tillers of the soil are the wage labourers employed by the capitalist farmers. The later is involved in agriculture only to appropriate profits from it
- A surplus is, thus, generated in agricultural production that is reaching to the market.
The size of the class of capitalist farmers is still small in the country today. But its emergence and growth reveal a significant aspect of change in the agrarian social structure. The emergence of this class has not only increased the efficiency and productivity of agriculture, but also has helped industrial growth and development. However, this trend has widened the between the rich and the poor farmers inequalities between the top and the bottom layers of the agrarian classes have accentuated leading to unrest in rural areas.
Some Studies on mode of productions in Indian agriculture
- Ashok Rudra sees part capitalism in Indian agriculture. He argues that a capitalist would always respond to onarlcet’s demand But Indian agriculture has stuck in wheat nice system. So there is production for market but with convenience. Further he argues that percentage of land used for cash crops is more while percentage of family income coming from it is low. Therefore there is absence of input out put rationalization, the spirit of capitalism is partial.The profits coming out of agriculture are not reinvested in agriculture always. Ritual spending, status consolidation spending can be see, So, not totally capitalistic but part capitalistic.
- Utsa Patnik argues that Indian agriculture is still in pre capitalistic phase. It is a preparatory phase before capitalism.She argues that technology is available but they don’t use it Family labour is used in are or other form instead of service of skilled labour, farming community function as pressure groups only. They don’t control power. Entire Indian economy is non-capitalist, but there are some islands of pre-capitalism and among them few capitalist are there. So do not genaralise that Indian is capitalistic.