The Constitution of India, as the fundamental law of the land, embodies the values, principles, and governance framework of our country. It serves as the supreme law, guiding the state’s functioning and ensuring citizen’s rights and responsibilities. With its roots grounded in historical struggles, philosophical ideals, and societal aspirations, it reflects the nation’s collective journey toward democracy, justice, and equality.

Structure of the Indian Constitution

The Indian Constitution is one of the longest and most detailed written constitutions in the world. Various components of the structure of the Indian Constitution can be seen as follows:

  • Parts– A “Part” of the Constitution refers to a division within the Constitution that groups together Articles on similar subjects or themes.
    • The Indian Constitution is structured into various Parts, each dealing with a specific aspect of the country’s legal, administrative, or governmental framework.
    • Originally, there were 22 parts in the Constitution of India. As of now, there are 25 parts of the Indian Constitution.
  • Articles- An “Article” refers to a specific provision or clause within the Constitution that details various aspects of the country’s legal and governmental framework.
    • Each part of the constitution contains several articles numbered sequentially.
    • Originally, there were 395 articles in the Constitution of India. As of now, the Indian Constitution contains 448 articles.
  • Schedules– A “Schedule” refers to a list or a table attached to the Constitution that details certain additional information or guidelines relevant to the constitutional provisions.
    • They provide clarity and supplementary details, making the Constitution more comprehensive and functional.
    • Originally, there were 8 schedules in the Constitution of India. As of now, there are 12 schedules in the Indian Constitution.

All 25 Parts of Indian Constitution

The original text of the Indian Constitution consisted of 22 parts and after amendments, currently, it contains 25 parts. Three parts – 9A Municipalities, 9B Co-operative societies and 14A tribunals – are added to the original constitution via amendments.

All 25 parts of the Indian Constitution are tabled below:

Parts of the Indian ConstitutionSubject Mentioned in the PartArticles in Indian Constitution
Part IUnion & Its TerritoryArticle 1-4
Part IICitizenshipArticle 5-11
Part IIIFundamental RightsArticle 12-35
Part IVDirective PrinciplesArticle 36-51
Part IV AFundamental DutiesArticle 51A
Part VThe UnionArticle 52-151
Part VIThe StatesArticle 152-237
Part VIIThe States in Part B of First Schedule
Note: 7th Amendment Act, 1956 repealed Part 7
Art-238 [Repealed]
Part VIIIThe Union TerritoriesArticle 239-242
Part IXThe PanchayatsArticle 243-243O
Part IX AThe MunicipalitiesArticle 243P-243ZG
Part IX BCo-operative SocietiesArticle 243ZH-243ZT
Part XScheduled and Tribal AreasArticle 244-244A
Part XIRelation between Union & StatesArticle 245-263
Part XIIFinance, Property, Contracts and SuitsArticle 264-300A
Part XIIITrade, Commerce and Intercourse within the territory of IndiaArticle 301-307
Part XIVServices under the Union and StatesArticle 308-323
Part XIV ATribunalsArticle 323A-323B
Part XVElectionsArticle 324-329A
Part XVISpecial Provisions relating to certain classesArticle 330-342
Part XVIIOfficial LanguagesArticle 343-351
Part XVIIIEmergency ProvisionsArticle 352-360
Part XIXMiscellaneousArticle 361-367
Part XXAmendment of the ConstitutionArticle 368
Part XXITemporary, Transitional and Special ProvisionsArticle 369-392
Part XXIIShort title, Commencement, Authoritative Text in
Hindi and Repeals
Article 393-395

Note – Part-VII (The States in Part B of the First Schedule), has been deleted by the 7th Constitutional Amendment of 1956.

Part V : The Union (Article 52-151)

Chapter I – The ExecutiveArticle 52 to 78
Chapter II – ParliamentArticle 79 to 122
Chapter III – Legislative Powers of PresidentArticle 123
Chapter IV – The Union JudiciaryArticle 124 to 147
Chapter V – Comptroller and Auditor-General of IndiaArticle 148 to 151

Part VI : The States (Article 152-237)

Chapter I – GeneralArticle152
Chapter II – The ExecutiveArticle 153 to 167
Chapter III – The State LegislatureArticle 168 to 212
Chapter IV – Legislative Powers of GovernorArticle 213
Chapter V – The High CourtsArticle 214 to 232
Chapter VI – Subordinate CourtsArticle 233 to 237

Part XI : Relations between the Union and the States (Article 245-263)

Chapter I – Legislative RelationsArticle 245 to 255
Chapter II – Administrative RelationsArticle 256 to 263

Part XII : Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits (Article 264-300A)

Chapter I – FinanceArticle 264 to 291
Chapter II – BorrowingArticle 292 to 293
Chapter III – Property, Contracts, Rights, Liabilities, Obligations and SuitsArticle 294 to 300
Chapter IV – Right to PropertyArticle 300A

Part XVII : Official Language (Article 343-351)

Chapter I – Language of the UnionArticle 343 and 344
Chapter II – Regional LanguagesArticle 345 to 347
Chapter III-Language of the Supreme Court, High Courts, and so onArticle 348 and 349
Chapter IV-Special DirectivesArticle 350 and 351

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Sahil Mourya