- World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) is one of the oldest specialised agencies of United Nations.
- WIPO was created in 1967 “to encourage creative activity, to promote the protection of intellectual property throughout the world”.
- WIPO currently administers 26 international treaties.
- It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.
- Every year World Intellectual Property Day is being celebrated on 26th April.
Status of WIPO Membership
- WIPO currently has 193 member states.
- All member states of the UN are entitled, though not obliged, to become members of the specialized agencies like WIPO.
- 190 of UN member states as well as Cook Islands, Holy See and Niue are members of WIPO.
- Palestine has permanent observer status.
- Besides 281 non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and 47 intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) 17 UN system of organizations and 10 IP organizations have official observer status at WIPO meetings.
- India joined WIPO in 1975.
- Policy forum to shape balanced international IP rules for a changing world.
- Global services to protect IP across borders and to resolve disputes.
- Technical infrastructure to connect IP systems and share knowledge.
- Cooperation and capacity-building programs to enable all countries to use IP for economic, social and cultural development.
- A world reference source for IP information.
WIPO’s Limitations and Exceptions
- In order to maintain an appropriate balance between the interests of rightholders and users of protected works, copyright laws allow certain limitations on economic rights.
- These are cases in which protected works may be used without the authorization of the rightholder and with or without payment of compensation.
- Limitations and exceptions is an issue considered in the agenda of the WIPO.
- The debate has been focused mainly on three groups of beneficiaries or activities in relation to exceptions and limitations – on educational activities, on libraries and archives and on disabled persons, particularly visually impaired persons.
|Name||Purpose||Has India Acceded/Ratified?|
|WIPO Performance and Phonograms Treaty||Deals with the rights of two kinds of beneficiaries, particularly in the digital environment:|
> performers (actors, singers, musicians, etc.); and
> producers of phonograms (persons or legal entities that take the initiative and have the responsibility for the fixation of sounds).
|India has acceded to this agreement.|
|Budapest Treaty||International Recognition of the Deposit of Microorganisms for the Purposes of Patent Procedure.||India has acceded to the treaty.|
|Madrid Protocol for the International Registration of Marks||Provides for the international registration of trade marks by way of one application that can cover more than one country.||India has acceded to the protocol.|
|Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works by Visually Impaired Persons and Persons with Print Disabilities||The treaty allows for copyright exceptions to facilitate the creation of accessible versions of books and other copyrighted works for visually impaired persons.||India has ratified the treaty.|
|WIPO Copyright Treaty||A special agreement under the Berne Convention which deals with the protection of works and the rights of their authors in the digital environment.||India has acceded to the treaty.|
What other WIPO-administered International Treaties and Conventions are there to which India is a Member?
- Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property
- Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization
- Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works
- Patent Cooperation Treaty
- Washington Treaty on Intellectual Property in respect of Integrated Circuits
- Nairobi Treaty on the Protection of the Olympic Symbol
WIPO and India
- India joined the WIPO in 1975.
- India is a part of the following WIPO Treaties:
- IPO Convention (1975)
- Paris Convention (1998)
- Berne Convention (1928)
- Patent Cooperation Treaty (1998)
- Phonograms Convention (1975)
- Nairobi Treaty (1983)
- Nice Agreement (2019)
- Locarno Agreement (2019)
- Vienna Agreement (2019)
- India acceded to all of the above treaties. India was the first country to ratify the Marrakesh Treaty.
What are Its Publications?
- Global Innovation Index – an annual ranking of countries by their capacity for, and success in, innovation.
- It is published in association with Cornell University and INSEAD.
- India has jumped places in the Global Innovation Index (GII) in recent years. In the 2022 GII, India is ranked 40th position out of 132, which is a big leap from previous years.
- Since 2011, India is the top-ranked innovative country in the Southern and Central Asia region.
- India has been outperforming on innovation relative to its GDP per capita for eight years at a stretch.
- On innovation quality, India ranks second among middle-income economies globally.
- The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) is a GII Knowledge Partner since 2009.
- In India, the Ministry of Commerce and Industry deals with WIPO and related issues.