• Literal Meaning – “End of the Vedas”. Vedanta refers to the “conclusion” (anta) of the Vedas.
  • Vedanta reflects ideas that emerged from, or aligned with, the speculations and philosophies contained in the Upanishads, specifically, Knowledge and liberation.
  • Vedanta is concerned with jnanakanda or knowledge section of the Vedas which is called Upnishads.
  • It is also called Uttara Mīmāṃsā, which means the ‘latter enquiry’ or ‘higher enquiry’; and is often contrasted with Pūrva Mīmāṃsā, the ‘former enquiry’ or ‘primary enquiry’.
  • The Upanishads may be regarded as the end of Vedas in different senses –
    • These were the last literary products of the Vedic period.
    • These mark the culmination of Vedic thought.
    • These were taught and debated last, in the Brahmcharya stage.
  • All Vedanta schools, in their deliberations, concern themselves with, but differ in their views regarding, ontology, soteriology and epistemology.
  • Main traditions of Vedanta are –
    • Achintya Bheda Abheda (difference and non difference)Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
      • Sub school of Vedanta, which teaches the individual self is both different and not different from the ultimate reality known as Brahman.
      • It emphasizes that the individual self (Jīvatman) is both different and not different from Brahman.
    • Advaita (monistic) VedantaAdi Sankraycharya
      • It refers to idea that Brahman alone is ultimately real, the phenomenal transient world is an illusory appearance (maya) of Brahman, and the true self, atman, is not different from Brahman.
        • He considers Knowledge or jnana/gyan to be the main means of attaining salvation.
    • Vishishtadvaita (Qualified monism) – Ramanuja
      • Non dualism of the qualified whole, in which Brahman alone is seen as the Supreme Reality, but is characterised by multiplicity.
      • It believes in all diversity subsuming to an underlying unity.
      • He considers loving the faith and practising devotion as the path to attain salvation.
    • Dvaita (Dualism) – Madhavacharay
      • Dvaita school believes that God (Vishnu, supreme soul) and the individual souls exits as independent realities, and these are distinct and being said that Vishnu (Narayan) is independent, and souls are dependent on him.
    • Dvaitadvaita (Nimbarka): It states that the Brahman is the highest reality, the controller of all.
    • Shuddhadvaita (Vallabhacharya): It states that both God and the individual self are the same, and not different.
  • The Vedanta theory also gave credence to the Theory of Karma, they believed in the theory of Punrajanama or rebirth.
  • They argued that a person would have to bear the burnt of their actions from the previous birth in the next one.

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Complete it pls