• Russia has been a long standing and time-tested partner for India. Development of India-Russia relations has been a key pillar of India’s foreign policy.
  • Since the signing of ‘Declaration on the India-Russia Strategic Partnershipin October 2000, India-Russia ties have acquired a qualitatively new character with enhanced levels of cooperation in almost all areas of the bilateral relationship.
  • During the Cold War, India and the Soviet Union had a strong strategic, military, economic and diplomatic relationship. After the Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia inherited its close relationship with India which resulted in both nations sharing a Special Strategic Relation.
  • Under the Strategic Partnership, several institutionalized dialogue mechanisms operate at both political and official levels to ensure regular interaction and follow up on cooperation activities.
  • During the visit of the Russian President to India in December 2010, the Strategic Partnership was elevated to the level of a ‘Special and Privileged Strategic Partnership ‘.
  • However, the relations have taken a steep downfall over the past few years, especially in the post-Covid scenario. One of the biggest causes for this is Russia’s close relations with China and Pakistan, which have caused many geopolitical issues in the past few years for India.
India and Russia Relationship
India-Russia Relations

Soviet Legacy

  • The deep roots of this relationship go back to the early 20th century when India was under British rule and the Tsars ruled Russia.
  • The Russian Revolution of 1905 inspired Indian freedom fighters. Mahatma Gandhi, then in South Africa, was struck by the similarity in the prevailing conditions in Russia and India.
  • Indian freedom fighters were greatly inspired by the Bolshevik Revolution and after visiting the Soviet Union in 1927, Jawaharlal Nehru was convinced that poor developing countries like India needed to follow not the capitalist path but a development model that emphasized social justice, equality and human dignity.
  • It is noteworthy that even before India became independent, an official announcement was made on 13 April 1947 on the establishment of diplomatic relations between India and the Soviet Union.
  • It was Soviet diplomatic backing and material support, and the confidence provided by the Indo-Soviet Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Cooperation, which enabled India to successfully undertake the operations in 1971.
  • Public sector companies like BHEL, HAL, ONGC and Steel Plants were setup with Soviet cooperation.
  • During Soviet times, it was a truly strategic, if somewhat unequal, partnership which helped India become more self-reliant . As the relationship evolved, it gained strength based on five pillars:
    • (a) Similar political and strategic perceptions of the world;
    • (b) Intensive military-technical cooperation;
    • (c) Strong economic bonds;
    • (d) Deep ties in science and technology; and
    • (e) People-to-people and cultural links.
Russia map

Areas of Cooperation


  • Annual Summit meeting between the Prime Minister of India and the President of the Russian Federation
    is the highest institutionalized dialogue mechanism
    under the Strategic Partnership between India and the Russian Federation.
  • During 17th Annual Summit, a Joint Statement ‘Partnership for Global Peace and Stability ‘ and a ‘Road map of Events’ was adopted to celebrate the 70th anniversary of the establishment of the diplomatic relations between India and Russia in the year 2017.
  • India and Russia signed five agreements during 18th Annual India Russia Summit (2017) at St. Petersburg in sectors covering nuclear energy, railways, gems and Jewellery, traditional knowledge and cultural exchanges.
  • During 19th Annual Summit (2018), both the sides welcomed the holding of India-Russia Business Summit
    in New Delhi, and the conclusion of the contract for the supply of the S-400 Long Range Surface to Air Missile system to India.
  • Also, an informal summit in Sochi on May 21, 2018 reflected the deep trust and confidence between the political leadership of both the countries.
  • In 2019, President Putin signed the Executive Order on awarding PM Narendra Modi Russia’s highest state decoration – The order of St Andrew the Apostle. The order was presented to PM for his distinguished contribution to the development of a privileged strategic partnership between Russia and India and friendly ties between the Russian and Indian peoples
  • Two Inter-Governmental Commissions – one on Trade, Economic, Scientific, Technological and Cultural Cooperation (IRIGC-TEC), and another on Military-Technical Cooperation (IRIGC- MTC), meet annually.

Levels of Political Interactions

  • BRICS Summit & SCO Summit provide platform for bilateral interaction as well as raising the regional issues.
  • There are regular high-level interactions between the two countries. Two Intergovernmental Commissions -one on Trade, Economic, Scientific, Technological and Cultural Cooperation (IRIGC-TEC), co-chaired by the External Affairs Minister (EAM) and the Russian Deputy Prime Minister (DPM), and another on Military Technical Cooperation (IRIGC- MTC) cochaired by Russian and Indian Defence Ministers, meet annually.
  • Russia-India-China (RIC) Foreign Ministers meetings and BRICS Foreign Ministers meetings provide interactions at Ministerial level.
  • BRICS Environment Ministers’ Meeting, Meeting of BRICS High Representatives for Security Issues, BRICS Parliamentary Forum provide other platform for political interaction.


  • Economic ties were the cornerstone of Indo-Soviet relations. Even the 1971 Indo-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation, which was essentially of a political-security nature, stressed upon “economic, scientific and technological cooperation”.
  • Although the India-Russia ties in general survived the upheavals of the early 1990s, economic relations began to cool in the post-Soviet period. Despite many ambitious targets set during various summits over the years, the current annual bilateral India-Russia trade crossed $10 billion only in 2017-18, with just over $2 billion Indian exports.
  • To promote smoother and greater movement of businessmen, the two countries signed a protocol on 24 December 2015 to simplify visa procedures for businessmen and representatives of associations.
  • The two countries intend to increase bilateral investment to US$50 billion and bilateral trade to US$30 billion by 2025.
  • Major items of export from India include pharmaceuticals, miscellaneous manufactures, iron & steel, apparels, tea, coffee and tobacco.
  • Major items of import from Russia include defence and nuclear power equipment, fertilizers, electrical machinery, steels and diamonds.
  • India’s Gem & Jewellery Export Promotion Council (GJEPC) struck a deal with the world’s largest diamond mining company, Alrosa of Russia , for sourcing rough diamonds directly for the diamond processing industry in India.
  • An MoU was signed between the National Small Industries Corporation of India and the Russian Small
    and Medium Business Corporation
    in October 2018.
  • Indian investments in Russia are estimated to be about US$ 13 billion which include Imperial Energy Tomsk; Sakhalin I; Volzhsky Abrasive Works Volgograd; and Commercial Indo bank.
  • Russian investments in India total about US$ 16 billion, including Kamaz Vectra in Hosur; Shyam Sistema Telecom Ltd, Sberbank and VTB.
  • Indian and Russian railways have also signed agreement on high speed rails in India and modernization of railways.

Forums for Economic Cooperation

  • Inter-Governmental Commission on Trade, Economic, Scientific, Technological and Cultural Cooperation (IRIGC-TEC) is the apex G2G forum to review sector-wise economic cooperation.
  • Mechanisms such as India Russia Business Council, India-Russia Trade, Investment and Technology Promotion Council, India-Russia Business Dialogue and India-Russia Chamber of Commerce (with focus on SMEs) supplement the efforts to build direct business-to-business ties.
  • During the 15th St. Petersburg International Economic Forum (SPIEF) in June 2015, India and Eurasian Economic Union (EaEU) signed a joint statement to undertake joint feasibility study for the FTA between India and EaEU (Eurasian Economic Union).
    • The Eurasian Economic Union consists of five member states: Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Armenia.

Diaspora and Cultural Exchanges

  • There are approximately 4,500 Indian students enrolled in medical and technical institutions in the
    Russian Federation. Hindustani Samaj is the oldest Indian organization in Russia functioning since 1957.
  • Jawaharlal Nehru Cultural Centre at the Embassy of India, Moscow (JNCC) maintains close cooperation with leading Russian institutions. There is general interest among Russian people in Indian dance, music, yoga and Ayurveda.
  • The President of India inaugurated the Year of Indian Culture ‘Namaste Russia’ in Moscow on 10 May 2015. About 15 performances in 8 cities were held as part of ‘Namaste Russia’ across various parts of Russia over 2015.
  • India’s Soft Power has significantly increased in Russia and Central Asian countries over the period of years. There has been a significant increase in university exchanges and joint science and technology research projects funded by the two governments.
  • On 21 June 2015, the first International Day of Yoga (IDY) was organized across Russia covering more than 60 regions with over 250 events and involving about 45000 Yoga enthusiasts.
  • Furthermore, efforts were made to cement and institutionalize cooperation between Indian States and Russian Regions, intensification of direct contacts between business, entrepreneurs and governmental bodies on both sides. This was manifested in the agreements that were signed between Assam and Sakhalin, Haryana and Bashkortostan, Goa and Kaliningrad, Odisha and Irkutsk, Visakhapatnam and Vladivostok.


  • India has long-standing and wide-ranging cooperation with Russia in the field of defence. India-Russia military technical cooperation has evolved from a simple buyer – seller framework to one involving joint research, codevelopment and co-production of advanced defence technologies and systems.
  • Defence Equipment: BrahMos Missile System, Joint design and development of the Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft as well as the licensed production in India of SU-30 aircraft and T-90 tanks, Ilyushin/HAL Tactical Transport Aircraft, KA-226T twin-engine utility helicopters, some frigates are examples of such flagship cooperation.
    • During the 17th Annual Summit, the sides concluded agreements on supply of S-400 air defence systems, construction of frigates (Krivak Class) of the Project 1135 and the shareholders Agreement on the formation of a joint venture to manufacture Kamov- 226T helicopters, making it the first major defence project under the ‘Make in India’ initiative.
  • The military hardware purchased/leased by India from Russia includes:
    • S-400 Triumf
    • Kamov Ka-226 200 to be made in India under the Make in India initiative.
    • T-90S Bhishma
    • INS Vikramaditya aircraft carrier programme
  • Russia also plays a very important role in assisting the Indian Navy with its submarine programmes:
    • Indian Navy’s first submarine, ‘Foxtrot Class’ came from Russia
    • India is dependent on Russia for its nuclear submarine programme
    • INS Vikramaditya, the sole aircraft carrier operated by India, is also Russian in origin.
    • Nine of the fourteen conventional submarines operated by India are Russian.
  • Bilateral Exercise: Military cooperation is a major component and platform of Russian-lndian strategic
    interaction. Joint military exercises are the most important aspect of defence cooperation and training
    exercises between the armed forces are held annually.
    • Both countries regularly conduct the Tri-Services exercise ‘INDRA‘.
  • Inter-governmental Interactions: The Inter Governmental Commission on Military Technical Cooperation (IRIGC-MTC) co-chaired by the two Defence Ministers and its Working Groups and Sub Groups review defence cooperation between the two countries.
    • A military cooperation road map was signed during the 17th meeting of the Russian-lndian inter-governmental commission for military-technical cooperation, which took place in Moscow, Russia on June 23, 2017. The road map is to become the basic document in planning bilateral contacts.
    • India, a leading global importer of defence hardware, is currently undergoing a $ 100 billion upgrade of its mostly Sovietera military equipment.


  • Russia is an important partner in peaceful use of nuclear energy and it recognizes India as a country with
    advanced nuclear technology with an impeccable nonproliferation record.
  • In 1988, India and the Soviet Union signed a nuclear cooperation deal. India’s Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and Russia’s Rosatom signed in December 2014 the Strategic Vision for strengthening cooperation in peaceful uses of atomic energy on behalf of their countries.
  • This included a strategic vision document on the serial construction of nuclear power units in India by using Russian technology. It outlines the plans for the construction of more than 12 nuclear power units in India, including the Kudankulam nuclear power plant in Tamil Nadu.
  • Russia has already constructed two nuclear power plants at Kudankulam in 2013 and 2016. India and Russia have signed a General Framework Agreement on KKNPP Units 3 and 4 and subsequent contracts are under preparation.
  • An agreement on localization of nuclear equipment in India was also concluded during the Annual Summit on 24 December 2015.

Energy and Infrastructure

  • Energy cooperation is one of the cornerstones of the relationship between India-Russia. According to a report by the International Energy Agency, India is likely to emerge as the world’s third largest energy consumer by 2025, behind only the US and China. In the second and third quarter of 2016, Indian companies have invested close to US$ 5.5 billion in Russia’s Oil and Gas sector.
  • Apart from nuclear energy, hydrocarbons are an active area for exploring cooperation between the two countries. The Goa summit in 2016 saw the creation of bilateral investment fund by National Infrastructure Investment Fund (NIIF) of India with Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF) to facilitate high-technology investments in Russia and India.
  • The North South International Transport Corridor (INSTC) is likely to soon become functional, raising the
    prospects for reduced transportation time and costs between the two countries, and providing a much required boost to bilateral economic ties.

Space, Science and Technology

  • Russia has played an important role in India’s space journey, and space remains one of the key pillars of the strategic partnership between the two countries. India Russia cooperation in the field of peaceful use of outer space dates back to about four decades.
    • In 2007, India and Russia signed a framework agreement on cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space, including satellite launches, GLONASS navigation, remote sensing and other societal applications of outer space.
    • In June 2015, the space agencies have signed a MoU on expansion of cooperation in the field of the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes. Expansion of space cooperation between India and Russia through this MoU is likely to benefit ISRO in further consolidation and augmentation of its space programme in various domains including space exploration.
    • When the Russian President and Indian Prime Minister met at the BRICS Summit 2016 in Goa, they “reaffirmed their commitment to pursue the immense potential to cooperate in outer space with a view to advance socially useful applications and scientific knowledge”.
  • The Working Group on Science and Technology functioning under IRIGC-TEC, the Integrated Long Term Programme (ILTP) and the Basic Science Cooperation Programme are the three main institutional mechanisms for bilateral Science and Technology cooperation, while the Science Academies of the two countries promote inter-academy exchanges.
  • A number of new initiatives in this sphere include India-Russia Bridge to Innovation, cooperation in telemedicine, creation of a Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL), and the Russia India Network (RIN) of universities.


  • With the rise in terrorism and organized crime across the world, it is imperative for countries to work together to combat all forms of terrorism.
    • The Agreement on Cooperation in Combating Terrorism and Organised Crime” signed during visit of Indian Delegation, led by Home Minister, to Russia from 27-29 November, 2017 is a step towards consolidating the benefits accrued in field of security and seeks to jointly fight the new and evolving risks and threats.
      • The Agreement would reinforce relationship between India and Russia through exchange and sharing of information, expertise and best practices, and would help in curbing terrorism and enhancing security in the region.
    • Russia supports India in combating terrorism and backs India’s proposal of Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism (CCIT).

Cyber Security

  • India has an “Agreement on cooperation in International Information Security” with Russia on cyber security. India and Russia have been working on closer coordination to combat radicalization through social media by groups like Islamic State as well as Pakistan-based outfits like LeT, Hizbul Mujahideen and Jaish-e-Mohammed.
  • Russian Quantum Center (RQC) has also shown interest to collaborate with India and offer its quantum technology that will prevent hackers from breaking into bank accounts. RQC plans to offer ‘quantum cryptography’ that could propel India to the forefront of hack proof communication in sectors such as banking, and national and homeland security. Quantum cryptography is based on the usage of individual particles or waves of light (photon) and their intrinsic quantum properties to develop an unbreakable cryptosystem.

Significance of Indo-Russian Relationship to India

The strategic partnership between India-Russia continues to play a dominant in each other’s foreign
policy outlook. India needs Russia as much Russia needs India.

Strategic Advantage

  • Russia is a country with large stockpiles of strategic bombers and a veto power in the UNSC which acts as a useful counterweight against global hegemony.
  • Russia is a time-tested partner and, in the past, effectively checkmated any misadventure by China or Pakistan to undermine India’s territorial integrity.
  • In the past, the Soviet Union, and then Russia, always backed India on the Kashmir issue. On its part, India has pursued a ‘balanced’ position on Ukraine. It also abstained from voting on the Ukraine resolution in the United Nations General Assembly.
  • Russia’s support is required for India’s bid for permanent membership of the U.N. Security Council, inclusion in the Nuclear Suppliers Group and other technology control regimes and Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC).
  • Russia can help provide access to Central Asian Republics which are rich in resources like Uranium, Oil & Gas.
  • Russia had contributed to creation of India’s capacity in the nuclear, defence, space and heavy industry sectors when no other country was willing to do so. It has also been India’s friend during moments of need, such as in 1971 Indo-Pakistan war.

Defence Procurement

  • According to the SIPRI arms transfer database, between 1992 and 2015 (at 1990 constant prices), India imported $36 billion worth of arms from Russia, which were more than 70% of the total Indian imports.
  • India’s only nuclear submarine, INS Chakra, is leased from Russia, while negotiations for leasing another Akula class nuclear submarine are in the final stages.
  • Russia is helping India in its effort to build an indigenous defence sector-technology transfer and joint R&D.
  • India cannot afford to sacrifice the current military cooperation with Russia. In material technologies and strategic raw materials inheritance, Russian strength is well acknowledged and is a far better source for easier technology transfer than from USA .


  • India-Russia relations are important to meet India’s ever increasing thirst for energy supply. Unlike China and Pakistan, India does not have direct access to energy rich Central Asian Republics, and hence needs Russia, that has historic ties with the region.
  • To increase its energy imports from Russia, India has made investments in projects like Sakhalin I. In 2014, Russia’s state-controlled oil company Rosneft signed a memorandum of understanding with ONGC, paving the way for joint projects in Russia’s offshore Arctic .
  • India needs Russia nuclear technology to meet the target of renewable energy.

However in recent times, there has been a drift towards West, especially in light of increasing warmth in relationship between India and USA; nuclear deal with Japan, emergence of Israel as one of defence collaborator. Therefore, the question of relevance of Russia for India should be seen in the light of following events:

  • Russia’s nearness to Pakistan: Russia and Pakistan held their ‘first-ever’ joint military exercises, in Pakistan’s Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province. It was code-named ‘Druzhba-2016‘ (Friendship-2016).
    The growing military cooperation and sale of military equipment to Pakistan creates uneasiness for India.
  • Russia-China Axis: Relations between Russia and China have witnessed an upward trend since the end of the cold war. In the light of the recent standoff with the West, Russia’s ties with China have grown from strength to strength, with the economic foundation being complemented with military ties.
  • They have conducted joint military exercises in eastern Mediterranean and the Pacific, signed a $400 billion gas deal for 30 years, and exported in high-tech armaments (including the S-400 air Defence system to China). Russia has also joined Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AllB). Marking a departure from the tug of war over influence in Central Asia, the two countries have discussed the possibility of combining the two projects (Silk Road Economic Belt & Eurasian Economic Union) under the auspices of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization during the SCO summit in Ufa, Russia.
  • Russia’s deepening relations with China have implications for India. As Russia moves closer to China, India’s maneuvering space in the region would shrink. In the past, Russia and India shared apprehensions about China and had coordinated policies. That might not be possible under the changing circumstances.
  • Regional Issues: Of paramount concern is the marked shift in Russia’s approach towards the AfPak issue, which used to be in sync with India’s position. BRICS Goa Summit declaration found no mention of Pakistan-based Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammad.
  • Defence Equipment Diversification: The kernel of India-Russia relations has been defence trade, as for more than half a century, Russia has been New Delhi’s largest source of Defence equipment.
    In absolute terms the defence trade still remains impressive, but in relative terms it is on a steady decline. India has been diversifying its defence markets and is working towards establishing an indigenous defence sector . Rafale deal with France and growing defence trade with Israel has diversified the Indian basket.
  • India-USA: Indo-US collaboration under Defence Trade and Technology Initiative (DTTI) and the decision to sign three foundational defence The strategic partnership between India-Russia continues to play a dominant in each other’s foreign policy outlook. India needs Russia as much Russia needs India. agreement i.e. LEMOA, CISMOA and BECA and Civil Nuclear Deal show the tilt towards USA. Further , the first edition of ‘2 + 2’ dialogue held in September 2018 in New Delhi shows deepening
    India-US relations. This poses India a challenge of balancing the relations with Russia and USA.
  • Others: The absence of widespread people-to people contacts, the barrier of language and the fact
    that each country has greatly diversified its global relations mean that talk of a ‘special relationship’ is sounding increasingly hollow.

The pursuit of strategic interests in the global geopolitical environment dictates alignments along multiple axes. Russia pursues a “multi-vector” foreign policy, dealing with countries of widely divergent perspectives. Contacts with Japan, Turkey and Saudi Arabia are examples. The partnership with China and dalliance with Pakistan are part of this mix. Equally, India is broad-basing its international engagement to maximize its room for maneuver. With Russia aiming to boost its role in the Asia-Pacific region, India is one of the most important countries to have a healthy and stable relationship with.

BRICS, RIC and SCO: India and Russia

In Russia’s geopolitical schemes, India figures as part and parcel of RIC (Russia-India-China), BRIC (Brazil Russia-India-China) and SCO for the obvious reason that Moscow regards these emerging entities as the ultimate driving force for revitalising the world economy on a long-term basis.

Ties between Russia and India, both bilaterally and within the context of multilateral formats like the G-20, BRICS, Shanghai Cooperation Organisation and RIC (Russia, India, China), formed the cornerstone of the foreign policies of both countries in 2018.

  • SCO: In the backdrop of regional geopolitical dynamics, India was encouraged and endorsed by Russia to join SCO as a full-time member, because the latter has considered that the former could be a vital strategic partner to counter China in the Eurasian region. Earlier, the SCO was seen as a Chinese dominated body being run with the support of Russia. With India’s addition, it will be seen as an inclusive organization with considerably greater respectability, leverage, power and stature. India participated in the SCO counter-terror military exercise “Peace Mission – 2018” conducted in Russia.
  • RIC (Russia-India-China) countries share a common interest in ensuring the continuance of economic globalisation – but are also committed to a process which seeks to reconcile regional demands. While the centre of gravity of international relations has now clearly shifted to the Asia-Pacific region – new uncertainties have emerged with the new government in USA, which is likely to influence the respective ties of RIC with the USA.
  • BRICS is another platform that brings together the two trusted partners on a range of issues like terrorism , trade and investment, infrastructure, energy, etc. During 5th BRICS Summit at Durban in 2013, South Africa- The eThekwini Declaration’ called for new models and approaches as regards global governance. It noted the negative spillover effects of the monetary policy of the U.S., Europe and Japan, which have led to increased volatility of capital flows, currencies and commodity prices, with negative growth effects in developing countries.
    The declaration called for a comprehensive reform of the UN, including its Security Council, with Russia reiterating the importance they attach to the status of India in international affairs, and supporting their aspiration to play a greater role in the UN.

Strengthening Links: ‘Druzhba-Dosti’

  • Russia will always be India’s strategic partner despite New Delhi’s growing ties with countries like the US, France and Israel. Russia supports India’s ambitions to play a more significant role at the international and regional level.
  • They are both part of groups of emerging powers – BRICS and RIC. There is ideological compatibility in the norms the two countries propagate that should underpin the international system – sovereignty, non-interference in domestic affairs.
  • Both have a similar approach to dispute resolution – they support a political, as opposed to a military solution for crisis in West Asia. India “recognised” Russia’s efforts for a political settlement in Syria.
  • However, the Indo Russian links need to be strengthened in light of growing nearness of India towards USA after the nuclear deal in 2008 and several high level visits to USA.
    • India should quickly conclude some visible, high ticket, defence deals with Russia.
    • India’s potential participation in the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) will be a win-win proposition for all members of the grouping.
    • India should also make a case for a more balanced growth in trade as the present arrangement is highly tilted in favour of Russia.
    • India should push the idea of putting in place a new rupee-rouble payment mechanism, which would allow the two economies to trade in their local currencies. Such a mechanism would make it easier to hedge against foreign currency risk, bypass US sanctions, and make Indian and Russian products more competitive in each other’s markets.
    • Within the framework of the excellent military relationship with Russia, India needs to impress upon Russia that it should not transfer to China, the technology that could prove to be detrimental to India’s security in the long run.
    • Mutually beneficial Trilateral Cooperation between Russia, China and India (RIC) that could contribute towards reduction of mistrust and suspicion between India and China should be promoted.
    • Afghanistan is of mutual interest to India and Russia. India has always advocated for an ‘Afghan-led and Afghan-owned’ peace process. The stability and security of Afghanistan is vital for the prosperity of region. Russia has serious differences with the US over the latter ‘s new Afghanistan policy. The ‘Heart of Asia’ process thus remains critical to forging cooperation to realize Afghanistan’s potential to be a vibrant Asian ‘hub’ and not as land of rivalry for great powers.
    • It should be emphasized that “Make in India” also aims at having India emerge as an essential player in the global defence market. India is forecast to spend $250 billion over the next decade upgrading its military and Russia should try to seize the opportunity to become a major part of this mission.


  • India and Russia have a long-standing relationship, and securing an economic and energy partnership is important from the diplomatic, geo-economics and geopolitical perspectives. Russia has a vital role in ensuring India’s energy security in the coming decade.
  • India-Russia economic relations carry a lot of potential, but they need to be scaled up. Finding a new logic for the ‘special relationship’ remains a task in progress, and the leadership on both sides should pursue this with energy and enthusiasm.

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Kishna Ram

Beautiful and organised article.