In this article, You will read Global Innovation Index (GII) 2020 – for UPSC IAS Notes.
Global Innovation Index
- The Global Innovation Index (GII) is an annual ranking of countries by their capacity for, and success in, innovation.
- It is published by Cornell University, INSEAD, and the World Intellectual Property Organization, in partnership with other organizations and institutions, and is based on both subjective and objective data derived from several sources, including the International Telecommunication Union, the World Bank, and the World Economic Forum.
- It provides detailed metrics about the innovation performance of 131 countries and economies around the world.
- Its 80 indicators explore a broad vision of innovation, including political environment, education, infrastructure, and business sophistication.
- The index was first released in 2007 and is released annually.
- The GII has become an important reference for governments and businesses to measure a country’s performance on innovation.
How is the Global Innovation Index calculated?
The GII is calculated by taking a simple average of the scores in two sub-indices. The sub-indices are:
- Innovation Input Index (composed of five pillars)
- Innovation Output Index (composed of two pillars)
Both the pillars describe an attribute of innovation each and contain up to five indicators. Their score is computed by the weighted average method.
Global Innovation Index 2020
- Theme: In 2020, the Global Innovation Index (GII) presents its 13th edition dedicated to the theme Who Will Finance Innovation?
- India is at the 48th position in the list of top 50 innovative countries.
- India occupied the 52nd position in the 2019 rankings.
- India is at the top position among the nations in central and southern Asia.
- India has now become the third most innovative lower-middle-income economy in the world.
- India ranks in the top 15 in indicators such as ICT (Information and Communication Technology) services exports, government online services, graduates in science and engineering, and R&D-intensive global companies.
- India improved the most in three pillars: Institutions (61st), business sophistication (55th), and creative outputs (64th).
- The consistent improvement in the index rankings is owing to the immense knowledge capital, the vibrant startup ecosystem, and the amazing work done by the public and private research organizations.
- The India Innovation Index 2019 which was released by the NITI Aayog, has been widely accepted as the major step in the direction of decentralization of innovation across all the states of India.
- The rankings show stability at the top but a gradual “eastward shift in the locus of innovation” as Asian economies like China, India, the Philippines and Vietnam have advanced considerably in the innovation ranking over the years.
- Top 5: Switzerland, Sweden, the US, the UK and the Netherlands lead the innovation ranking.
Economic Survey 2020-21: India needs to up its gross expenditure on R&D from 0.7% to 2% of GDP.