“Climate Action Tracker” which monitors the emission reduction pledges of different countries is a :


Database created by coalition of research organisations


Wing of “International Panel of Climate Change”


Committee under “United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change”


Agency promoted and financed by United Nations Environment Programme and World Bank

Correct Answer

(a) Database created by coalition of research organisations


  • The Climate Action Tracker is an independent scientific analysis that tracks government climate action and measures it against the globally agreed Paris Agreement aim of “holding warming well below 2°C and pursuing efforts to limit warming to 1.5°C.”
  • collaboration of two organisations, Climate Analytics and New Climate Institute, the CAT has been providing this independent analysis to policy makers since 2009.
  • CAT quantifies and evaluates climate change mitigation targets, policies and action.
  • It also aggregates country action to the global level, determining likely temperature increases during the 21st century using the MAGICC climate model.
  • CAT further develops sectoral analysis to illustrate the required pathways for meeting the global temperature goals.
  • CAT covers all the biggest emitters and a representative sample of smaller emitters covering about 85% of global emissions and approximately 70% of the global population.
  • The aim of the Climate Action Tracker (CAT) project is to provide policymakers, civil society and the media that inform them with an up-to-date assessment of countries’ individual reduction targets and with an overview of their combined effects at the global level.

Additional Notes:

  • The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is the United Nations body for assessment of climate change.
    • It is a key source of scientific information and technical guidance to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement. The IPCC provides governments at all levels with scientific information they can use to develop climate policies.
  • The IPCC is an organisation of governments that are members of the United Nations or the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The IPCC currently has 195 members.
  • IPCC’s main activities are to prepare:
    • comprehensive assessment reports on climate change, its causes, impacts and response options
    • methodology reports, which provide practical guidance to Parties to help them prepare national greenhouse gas inventories
    • special reports on topics that inform the assessment reports.
  • The IPCC does not undertake new research but synthesises published and peer-reviewed literature to develop a comprehensive assessment of scientific understanding, published in IPCC assessment reports.
  • So far, Six assessment reports have been produced, the first one being released in 1990.
  • India ratified the UNFCCC in 1993.
  • The nodal agency for the UNFCCC in India is the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC).
Category of Parties Meaning
Annex I 43 parties (countries) come under this category. The countries that come under this category are developed countries.
Annex II 24 countries of Annex I also come under Annex II countries. The countries in this category are expected to provide technical and financial assistance to countries coming under the category of developing countries.
Annex B The countries in this category are Annex I countries, who have first or second-round Kyoto greenhouse gas emissions targets.
Least-developed countries (LDCs) 47 Parties (countries) come under the category of LDCs. These countries are given special status under the treaty taking into consideration their limitations adapting to the effects of climate change.
Non Annex I Parties (countries) that are not listed in Annex I that come under the category of low-income developing countries.
  • The UNEP engages in developing global conventions on the environment and related issuesIt hosts the secretariats of various conventions such as:
    • Minamata Convention
    • United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity
    • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)
    • Basel Convention
    • Stockholm Convention
    • Rotterdam Convention
    • Montreal Protocol
    • Vienna Convention
    • Convention on Migratory Species
    • Tehran Convention
    • Bamako Convention
    • Carpathian Convention
    • Climate & Clean Air Coalition (CCAC)
  • Major Programmes of the UNEP
    • Earth Hour
    • Clean up the World
    • Billion Tree Campaign
    • Seal the Deal
    • Pain for the Planet
    • Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level (APELL)
    • TUNZA
    • Faith for Earth
  • Major Reports:
    • Emission Gap Report,
    • Adaptation Gap Report,
    • Global Environment Outlook,
    • Frontiers,
    • Invest into Healthy Planet,
    • Making Peace with Natur,
  • Major Campaigns:
    • Beat Pollution,
    • UN75,
    • World Environment Day,
    • Wild for Life.