• The Ganga River is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through India and Bangladesh.
  • The 2,525 km river rises in the western Himalayas in the state of Uttarakhand.
  • It flows south and east through the Gangetic plain of North India, receiving the right-bank tributary, the Yamuna, which also rises in the western Indian Himalayas, and several left-bank tributaries from Nepal that account for the bulk of its flow.
  • In West Bengal, a feeder canal taking off from its right bank diverts 50% of its flow southwards, artificially connecting it to the Hooghly River.
  • The Ganges continues into Bangladesh, its name changing to the Padma. It is then joined by the Jamuna, the lower stream of the Brahmaputra, and eventually the Meghna, forming the major estuary of the Ganges Delta, and emptying into the Bay of Bengal.

Tributaries of Ganga River

  • The Ganga drainage system, also known as the Ganga river basin, is a large river system that includes the Ganga river and its tributaries.
  • It has numerous left and right tributaries that contribute to its flow. Here are some of the significant left and right bank tributaries of the Ganga River:
    • Left Bank Tributaries: Ramganga, Garra, Gomti, Tamsa Ghaghara, Gandak, Burhi Gandak, Koshi, Mahananda, Brahmaputra, Meghna
    • Right Bank Tributaries: Yamuna, Tamsa (also known as Tons River), Karamnasa, Sone, Punpun, Falgu, Kiul, Chandan, Ajay, Damodar, Rupnarayan
Tributaries of Ganga River

Left Bank Tributaries of Ganga River


  • A tributary of the Ganga river, it drains south-western Kumaun.
  • Ramganga River originates in the southern slopes of Dudhatoli Hill in the Chamoli district of Uttarakhand.
  • It is fed by springs emanating from the reservoirs of underground water
  • The prominent geomorphic features found in its tract across the lower Himalayan hills of Almora district are incised meanders, paired and unpaired terraces, interlocking spurs, waterfalls, rock benches, cliffs, and towering ridges
  • It also flows through the dun valley of Corbett National Park.
  • There is a dam built across the Ramganga at Kalagarh
  • It finally meets the Ganga near Kannauj.
  • Bareilly city is situated on its banks.


  • It originates in the Kumaon hills of Uttarakhand.
  • It is a tributary of the River Ganga, which flows through major industrial areas of Shahjahanpur, UP.


  • It originates from Gomat Taal which formally is known as Fulhaar jheel, near Madho Tanda, Pilibhit in UP.
  • It extends 900km through UP and meets the Ganges River in Ghazipur.
  • At the Sangam of Gomti and Ganga, the famous Markandey Mahadeo temple is situated.
  • The most important tributary is the Sai River, which joins near Jaunpur
  • The cities of Lucknow, Lakhimpur Kheri, Sultanpur and Jaunpur are located on the banks of Gomti
  • The river cuts the Jaunpur city into equal halves and becomes wider in Jaunpur.


  • The Ghaghara originates in the glaciers of Mapchachungo.
  • Alternatively known as Karnali or Kauriala, it is a trans-boundary perennial river originating from the Tibetan plateau near Lake Mansarovar.
  • It cuts through the Himalayas in Nepal and is joined by the Sharda River at Brahmaghat in India
  • It is a major left-bank tributary of the Ganga and joins it at Chhapra in Bihar.
  • Its total length is 1080km
  • This river is the main source of water in Bara-Banki District of UP.
  • Rapti, Chhoti Gandak, Sharda, and Sarju are the major tributaries of this river.


  • The Sharda river rises in the Milam glacier in the Nepal Himalayas where it is known as the Goriganga.
  • The Sharda originates from the Greater Himalayas at Kalapaani at an altitude of 3600m in the Pithoragarh District of Uttarakhand.
    • Kalapaani is situated on the route of Kailash Manasarovar Yatra tour
  • It is named as River Mahakali in Nepal and the name is after the Goddess Kali whose temple is situated in Kalapaani near the Lipu-Lekh pass at the border between India and the Tibet
  • The river borders the Nepalese Mahakali Zone and Uttarkhand.
  • The river flows in a gorge section in the upper region.
  • The Mahakali after it descends into the plains into India is known as Sarda, which meets the Ghaghara.


  • (Also called Sarju). It is a river that flows through UP.
  • Sarayu is a river that originates at a ridge south of Nanda Kot mountain in Bageshwar district in Uttarakhand.
  • This river is of ancient significance, finding mentions in Vedas and Ramayana
  • It is a left-bank tributary of River Ghaghara
  • On Ram Navami, the festival that celebrates the birthday of Lord Ram, thousands of people take a dip in the sacred river Sarayu at Ayodhya.


  • The Rapti rises south of a prominent E-W ridgeline midway b/w the western Dhaulagiri Himalaya and the Mahabharat Range in Nepal
  • The mainstream of this river rises as a spring in the southern slopes of the Lower Himalayas
  • The river is essentially fed by underground water
  • It has the tendency of recurrent floods that led to its nickname “Gorakpur’s Sorrow”
  • Lungri Khola, Jhimruk Khola, Ami River, Rohini River are the major left-bank, and Arun Khola is the right bank tributary of the Rapti.


  • It is formed by the union of the Kali and Trisuli rivers, which rise in the Great Himalayan Range in Nepal
  • From this junction to the Indian border the river is called the Narayani
  • It enters the Ganga river opposite Patna in a place called Sonepur after a winding course of 765 km
  • The Burhi Gandak flows parallel to and east of the Gandak River
  • The upper catchment area of the river is bleak and desolate lying in the rain shadow area of the Himalayan range
  • The middle and the lower courses of the river flows through the V-shaped valleys, incised meanders, and have paired and unpaired terraces on either sides.

Burhi Gandak

  • This 320km long river originates from Chautarva Chaur near Bisambharpur in the district of West Champaran district of Bihar
  • It initially flows through the East Champaran district.
  • After flowing for a distance of about 56km the river takes a southerly turn where two rivers – the Dubhara and the Tour- join it.
  • Thereafter, the river flows in a south-easterly direction through the Muzaffarpur district for about 32km.
  • It flows parallel to and east of the Gandak River in an old channel.
  • The main tributaries of the Burhi Gandak are – Masan, Balor, Pandai, Sikta, Tilawe, Tiur, Dhanauti, Kohra, and Danda
  • Samastipur is situated on it.
  • There is no major or medium project over the Burhi Gandak river system.


  • Aka Saptakoshi for its 7 Himalayan tributaries, it is an antecedent transboundary river flowing through Nepal and India
  • Some of the rivers of the Kosi system, such as the Arun, the Sun Kosi, and the Bhote Koshi, originate in the Tibet
  • This 729km long river is one of the largest tributaries of the Ganga and joins it at Kursela in Kathiar district
  • The highest peak in the world, Mt.Everest and the Kanchenjunga are in the Kosi catchment.
  • Bagmati is an important tributary of the Kosi.
  • Over the last 250 years, the Kosi river has shifted its course over 120km from east to west
  • Its unstable nature has been attributed to the heavy silt it carries during the monsoon season, Due to this, it is also termed as “The Sorrow of Bihar”.

Right Bank Tributaries of Ganga River


  • Yamuna originates from the Yamunotri Glacier on the southwestern slopes or Banderpoonch peak in the Mussoorie range of the lower Himalayas.
  • Flows along states of Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana enters Delhi and merges with the Ganga near Triveni Sangam, Allahabad(Prayagraj).
  • The largest tributary of the Ganga in the northern plains.
  • Its main affluent in the upper reaches is the Tons which also rises from the Bandarpunch glacier.
  • It joins the Yamuna below Kalsi before the latter leaves the hills.
  • At this site, the water carried by the Tons is twice the water carried by the Yamuna.
  • The total length of the Yamuna from its origin till Allahabad is 1,376 km.
  • It creates the highly fertile alluvial, Yamuna-Ganges Doab region between itself and the Ganges in the Indo-Gangetic plain.
  • The cities of Bhagpat, Delhi, Noida, Mathura, Agra, Firozabad, Etawah, Hamirpur, and Allahabad lie on its banks.

Tamsa (Tons)

  • The Tamsa River is a right bank tributary of the Ganges flowing through the Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.
  • The Tamsa rises in a tank at Tamakund in the Kaimur Range.
  • At the edge of the Purwa plateau, the Tamsa and its tributaries form many waterfalls.
  • The river receives the Belan in UP and joins the Ganges at the town of Sirsa.
  • The Tamsa River while descending through the Rewa Plateau and draining northwards makes a vertical fall of 70m known as Purwa Falls.
  • Some of the more notable waterfalls on the tributaries of the Tamsa river, as they come down from the Rewa Plateau, are Chachai Falls (127m) on the Beehar River, a tributary of the Tamsa; the Keoti Falls (98m) on the Mahana River, a tributary of the Tamsa; and Odda Falls (145m) on the Odda River, a tributary of the Belan River, which is itself a tributary of the Tamsa.

Son River

  • The Son, 784km long, originates near Amarkantak in MP, just east of the headwater of the Narmada River, and flows north-northwest through MP before turning sharply eastward where it encounters the southwest-northeast running Kaimur Range
  • The Son parallels the Kaimur hills, flowing east-northeast through UP, Jharkhand, and Bihar states to join the Ganga just above Patna
  • Geologically. The lower valley of the Son is an extension of the Narmada Valley, and the Kaimur Range an extension of the Vindhya Range
  • Dehri is the major town situated on Son River.
  • Tributaries of Son river
    • Right – Gopad Rive, Rihand River, Kanhar River, North Koel River
    • Left – Ghaggar River, Johila River, Chhoti Mahanadi River
  • Its chief tributaries are the Rihand and the North Koel. It is largely forested and sparsely populated.

Karmanasa River

  • The Karmanasa River is a tributary of the Ganges.
  • It originates in Kaimur district of Bihar and flows through the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
  • Its tributaries are the Durgavati, the Chandraprabha, the Karunuti, the Nadi, the Goriya and the Khajuri.


  • It originates in the Palamu district of Jharkhand.
  • It flows through Chhatra, Aurangabad, Gaya, and Patna of both Jharkhand and Bihar.
  • It flows in the north-east direction and joins the Ganga at Fatuha, Patna, Bihar.


  • It, also known as the Phalgu or Niranjana river, is a significant river in the Indian state of Bihar. 
  • The Falgu River is a popular tourist and pilgrimage destination.
  • It holds special significance for Buddhism because it is believed to be the location where Lord Buddha attained enlightenment.
  • It flows through the districts of Chatra and Gaya in the Indian states of Jharkhand and Bihar before joining the Punpun River.


  • It originates in the Giridih district of Jharkhand, India.
  • It flows through the Sheikhpura, Jamui, and Lakhisarai, districts of the Indian state of Bihar before joining the Ganges near Surajgarha, Bihar.
  • It is 110 kilometres long and covers an area of about 16,500 square kilometres.


  • It is a significant river that flows near the city of Bhagalpur in the Indian state of Bihar. 
  • The river is also known by the name of Champa River, which has been identified as the historical name of the river.


  • The river originates on the low slope near Deoghar hills in the Santhal Pargana district of Jharkhand.
  • It follows from Jharkhand to Bihar and ends in Simjuri, West Bengal.


  • It is a most important tributary of the Ganges river.
  • Its source is in the Palamau hills of Chota Nagpur, Jharkhand, at an elevation of about 609.75 m.
  • It then flows south-easterly through several districts of Jharkhand and West Bengal before joining the Hooghly River 48.27 kilometres below Kolkata.


  • It flows from Dhaleswari (Dhalkisor) in the foothills of the Chhota Nagpur Plateau to Bankura, where it joins the Dwarkeshwar river.
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