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Programme/Projects Related to Rivers
Ganga Action Plan
- Ganga Action Plan (1st Phase)
- The main objective of GAP I was to improve the water quality of Ganga by stopping the polluting discharges. Techniques of diversion and treatment were used to achieve it.
- Haridwar-Rishikesh (now in Uttarakhand ), Farrukhabad Fatehgarh, Kanpur,Allahabad, Varanasi and Mirzapur of Uttar Pradesh were included in phase I of GAP.
- Construction of STPs, pumping stations, crematories, toilets, riverfronts etc. were done during GAP I in Uttar Pradesh.
- Ganga Action Plan (2nd Phase)
- GAP II was launched for abatement of pollution in major tributaries of Ganga like Gomti and Yamuna.
- GAP II projects related to Ganga, Yamuna and Gomti are being run in Uttar Pradesh. It includes 12 cities on the bank of Ganga, 8 cities on the bank of Yamuna and 3 cities on the bank of Gomati.
- Japan Government (JBIC) is assisting projects in four cities, Prayagraj, Varanasi, Lucknow and Kanpur.
- The Gomti Action Plan (GoAP) was formulated in the year 1993 for three towns, namely Sultanpur, Jaunpur and Lucknow situated along the banks of river Gomti.
Namami Gange Programme
- It is an Integrated Conservation Mission, to accomplish the objectives of effective abatement of pollution and conservation and rejuvenation of National River Ganga.
- These are the main pillars of the programme:
- SewerageTreatment Infrastructure
- Industrial Effluent Monitoring
- River-Front Development
- Public Awareness
- The programme is being implemented by the National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) and its statecounterpart organisations.
- Five days Ganga Yatra was organised in the state in two phases- first Bijnor to Kanpur and second Balia to Kanpur.
Lake Action Plan in Uttar Pradesh
- Under the National Lake Conservation Plan, Ramgarh Tal of Gorakhpur, Mansi Ganga Tal of Govardhan, Laxmi Tal of Jhansi and Madan Sagar of Mahoba have been proposed.
- Out of the above Mansi Ganga Tal of Govardhan, Mathura has been given priority and its DPR is under consideration of GOI for approval.
UP Government’s 30 Year Revival Plan for Yamuna
- The State Government has formulated a 30-year plan to revive the Yamuna river basin.
- The State Water Resources Agency (SWRA) will formulate the roadmap to deal with water scarcity and water quality, sustainable development, management and conservation of the river basin.
- UP is the biggest contributor to the pollution of Yamuna. Industrial effluent discharge through Hindon and illegal mining are aggravating the situation.
- The revival plan will include seven other rivers– Ganga, Ramganga,Gomati, Rapti, Ghagra, Gandak and Son.
Timeline of Ganga Cleaning Initiatives
- December 1984: Comprehensive survey of the Ganga basin by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB).
- June 1985: Ganga Action Plan (GAP) I, based on CPCBsurvey.
- April 1993: GAP II started along with three other rivers Yamuna, DamodarandGomti.
- December 1995: GAP II effective.
- December 1996: GAP II merged with National River Conservation Plan (NRCP) which was for all rivers of India.
- March 2000: GAP l declared closed.
- February 2009: National Ganga River Basin Authority launched.
- July 2010: World Bank project planning and monitoring, under the National River Conservation Programme.
- August 2011: National Mission for Clean Ganga registered as a society.
- June 2014: Namami Gange programme announced.
- August 2014: Ganga rejuvenation transferred to the ministry of water resources from environment ministry.
- September 2014: Reconstitution of NGRBA.
- October 2016: National Ganga Council replaced NGRBA.
- September 2019: Formation of Jal Shakti Ministry replacing Water Resource Ministry.
National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG)
- It is the implementing agency for the National Ganga Council.
- It has a two-tier structure comprising the Governing Council and Executive Committee.
- NMCG was established in the year 2011 as a registered society.
- Aim of NMCG is to ensure effective control of pollution and rejuvenation of the river Ganga by adopting a river basin approach and to maintain minimum ecological flow in Ganga, ensuring water quality.
State Mission for Clean Ganga–Uttar Pradesh (SMCG-UP)
- Uttar Pradesh Government has a separate department of Namami Gange and Rural water supply, dedicated to Ganga rejuvenation.
- State Mission for Clean Ganga-Uttar Pradesh (SMCG-UP) is operational in the state as an extended arm of National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) for the state.
- SMCG-UP is responsible for implementing the Namami Gange and other programmes in the state through various executing agencies.
National Ganga Council
- Its full name is ‘National Council for Rejuvenation, Protection and Management of River Ganga’. It is headed by the Prime Minister.
- Its board includes several Union Ministers and Chief Ministers of five Ganga basin states Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh (UP), Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal.
- It replaced the National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA).
- It is tasked with the responsibilities for the supervision of pollution prevention and rejuvenation of River Ganga Basin, including Ganga and its tributaries.
- The National Ganga Council is formed by amending the Environment (Protection ) Act (EPA),1986. The Act envisages five-tierstructure at national, state and district level:
- National Ganga Council
- Empowered Task Force (ETF) on river Ganga chaired by Union Minister of Jal Shakti
- National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG)
- State Ganga Committees
- District Ganga Committees in every specified district on the bank of river Ganga and its tributaries in the states