- The Paramara dynasty ruled Malwa and the adjacent regions in west-central India from the 9th century to the 14th century.
- The founder of Parmar dynasty, Upendra or Krishnaraja, in the Malwa region. It is located north of the Narmada River in the early ninth century. Paramaras were a part of the Rajput Paramara clan.
- The Rajput dynasty, the Paramara, ruled the Malwa region between the ninth and fifteenth centuries. Most likely, the early rulers of the nation were the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta.
- Siyaka took over the Paramaras around 972 CE after sacking Manyakheta, the Rashtrakuta capital. During the time of his successor Munja, the Malwa region in present-day Madhya Pradesh had evolved into the primary Paramara domain, with Dhara (now Dhar) serving as their capital.
The origin of the Paramaras can be traced to the old-age tradition of India. As per old mythology, Vashistha’s Kama Dhenu was stolen by the wise man Vishwamitra. Vashishtha sacrificed on Mount Abu to get his cow back, and a hero named Paramaras emerged from the sacrificial fire and captured the cow.
- One of the four Agnikula clans of Rajputs is the Parmaras. Their lineage is unknown. The origin of the Parmaras is a subject of debate among scholars. They ruled over the area known as the “Kingdom of Ujjain,” located north of Narmada.
- Paramaras, whose capital was at Dhar, originally at Ujjain, were the successors of Rashtrakutas. Upendra, or Krishnaraja, founded the Paramaras dynasty, which ruled mainly the Malwa Region. Paramaras succeeded Pratiharas during the early 10th century after the latter’s downfall.
- The dynasty reached its pinnacle under Munja’s nephew Bhoja, whose realm stretched from Vidisha in the east to the Sabarmati River in the west, from Chittor in the north to Konkan in the south.
- From the end of the 10th century to the end of the 13th century, a branch of the Parmar dynasty ruled Mount Abu, with Chandravati as its capital. From the middle of the 10th century to the middle of the 12th century, the second branch of this dynasty ruled in the princely states of Vagad (present-day Banswara) and Dungarpur in the state of Uthtuk Banswara, the capital of the present Arthuna. Two more branches of the lineage are known. From the late 10th century to the end of the 12th century, one ruled in Jalore and the other in Bhinmal.
Paramara Dynasty: Important Rulers
Some of the important rulers of this dynasty are as follows.
His reign started in 800 CE and continued till 818 CE. King Upendra, or Krishnaraja, was the Paramaras dynasty’s founder.
- His reign started in 948 CE and continued till 974 CE.
- Also known as Harsha known for defeating the Rashtrakuta king, Khottiga, at Kalighatta on the banks of the Narmada and sacking Manyakheta, the Rashtrakuta capital.
- He established the Paramaras as a sovereign power.
Munja/ Vakpatiraja II/ Prithvi Vallabha
- He ruled from 972 CE till 990 CE. The dynasty saw numerous military victories against the Kalachuris, the Huns, the Guhilas, the Nadulas, and the Tailapa, under him.
- Eventually, he was lost at the hands of Tailapa II, the Western Chalukya ruler and the Paramars lost their southern territory.
- Credited as being a great poet and having an interest in art and culture was also known by various aliases such as Amoghavarsha, Prithvi Vallabha, and Sri Vallabha.
- Sindhuraja ruled from 990 CE to 1010 CE. He was Munja’s brother.
- He reclaimed territories lost to Tailapa II. In a battle, he also defeated an Huna chief, the Somvanshi of south Kosala, the Shilaharas of Konkana, and the ruler of Lata.
- His biography Nava-Sahasanka- Charita. It was written by his court poet Padma Gupta.
- He ruled Chittor in the north to upper Konkan in the south and from the Sabarmati River in the west to Vidisha in the east from 1010 CE to 1055 CE.
- Being a patron of the arts, literature, and science, Bhoj is credited with constructing the Bhojeshwar temple, which is in present-day Madhya Pradesh, and Bhoj shala, which was a center of Sanskrit studies in Dhar.
- He also published various pieces of literature, some of which are:-
- Ayurveda Sangraha -a major commentary on the yoga sutra
- Rasaraja Mriganka: A treatise on chemistry (ores) and drugs.
- Samarangana Sutradhara- A treatise on Civil Engineering
- Tattva Prakasha: A treatise on Tantras
- He was given the name Parameshvara-Parama Bhattaraka, which is thought to be synonymous with Paramara-Deva. He was the last prominent ruler of the Paramaras dynasty.
- Like other Rajas, Raja Bhoj enjoyed fighting pointless fights with his neighbors. It is thought that Bhoja is a Model King. Bhoja is credited with works on cosmology, engineering, poetry, math, and other subjects.
- Many academics compare Bhoja and Samudragupta.
- He ruled during the period 1094-1133 CE succeeding his elder brother Lakshamndev. He was Accredited with being a poet. He wrote hymns dedicated to various deities.
- One of the most famous among them is Nagpur Prashasti. He also wrote a hymn dedicated to Makahal after restoring the Mahakal temple of Ujjain. Gold (5.2 g), silver (2.9 g), and copper coins were discovered bearing his name in Indore.
- Last known king of the Paramaras dynasty. He was defeated and killed by Ala-ud-din Khalji of Delhi in 1305 CE, leading to the decline of the Paramaras dynasty.
Administration of the Paramara Dynasty
- The king headed the Paramara dynasty. The Prime minister controlled the officials. He was subordinate to the kings. Prime minister used to advise the sovereign matters of the state. However, his advise had no boundations on the kings.
Army of Paramara Dynasty
- Paramara army consisted of Elephants, cavalry, and infantry. The Paramara government had between 30,000 and 40,000 cavalry and an untold number of infantry at the time of its destruction. For their elephants, they were renowned.
- The principal tools of battle were swords and bows, and arrows. King Bhoja practised archery and played the drums with drums. In the cities of Ujjain, Dharh, Bhilsa, Mandu, and Gauupura, Orts were constructed.
Branches and Claimed Descendants of Paramara Malwa
- The three sons of Sindhuraja were Bhoja, Udaditya, and Mang. Emperor Bhoja (1000–1055 CE), a notable lover of art and building, replaced Sindhuraja as king. His feudatory Yashovarman’s Kalvana grant asserts Bhoja’s triumph over Karnata, Lata, Gurjara, Toggal, and Bhima.
- He created Bhojpur, 28 kilometers from Bhopal, and Bhojpal (also known as Bhopal). He had a son named Jayasimha, who was murdered in combat with a rival Chalukya prince, Someshvara I, after rising to power with the aid of Chalukya Vikramaditya VI.
The different clans of Paramars are as follows.
Descendants of Imperial Parmars: Parmar Khaaps of Malwa Origin
- The Umat Panwars is a khaap or subclan that can be traced back to Udaditya’s grandson Umat.
- They founded the Umatwara republic in Northern Malwa in the 1400s, which later broke apart into the states of Rajgarh and Narsinghgarh.
- It is named after Umat Panwar, a jagir allocated to this area and the son of Raja Bhoja I Parmar.
Panwars of Garhwal & Himanchal
- According to oral history, the Rajaputra Kanakpala Parmar, who landed at Chamoli while making a pilgrimage in the early ninth century, is the ancestor of the Panwars of Garhwal.
- He may have come from Malwa or Abu due to parallels between Maru-Gurjara and Garhwali architecture, as well as names of localities. Chandpur Garhi is dated by Cunningham to 1159 AD. By uniting all 52 Garhis in 1358, Raja Ajay Pal Panwar, the 37th generation from Kanakpal, succeeded the ailing Katyuri dynasty ( survived by Rajwar Rajputs of Askot, Pithoragarh).
- The Kingdom of Garhwal was created by the union of these 52 Garhis (chieftains), and Ajaypal moved its capital from Chandpur Garhi to Devalgarh and then Srinagar.
Descendants of Abu-Chandrawati Parmars
- A brother of Bappairaja Parmar of Malwa, Utpalraja founded the Arbuda or Abu Parmars between 918 and 919 AD.
- They are frequently known as Abu-Chandravati Parmars since their capital was located at the base of Mount Abu.
- The Jalore Parmars and the Bhinmal-Kiradu Parmars were both branches of the Abu Parmars. These three Parmar lineages were vassals of the Imperial Chalukyas of Gujarat, in contrast to the Vagad Parmars from the same territory who were feudatories of the Malwa Parmars.
Descendants of VAGOD Parmars of Arthuna
- Before the Ahada Guhilots took control of the territory in the 11th century, the Vagod Parmars governed it with their capital at Arthuna.
- The Vagadiya Parmars of Arthuna, who controlled Vagad in the 11th century before the Ahada Guhilots took it over, are the ancestors of the Barads of Panchmahal, Banaskantha, and Sabarkantha. Barads are one of Gujarat’s most widespread Parmar branches and have their head families in Danta, Banaskantha.
- An ancient Parmar sublineage that went to Gujarat and took the name of a Dod village is the Dod-Parmars.
- Chandanavati (prehistoric Vadodara) had been founded by their leader Chandan Dod. Bijaldev Dod also founded Gagron in Jhalawar, formerly known as Dodgarh, in the 12th century.
Parmars of Punjab
- The Varha Panwars descended from Dharnivarah of Lodruva and the oldest Panwar branch in the desert, opposed Devraj Bhati, who built Derawar Fort in the ninth century CE.
- They were also linked to Bhatia. They dominated Lodruva and Bahawalpur, but the Bhattis’ emergence as a powerful force in the Jaisalmer-Dhatt region drove the Varhas even deeper into northern Punjab.
The Decline of Paramaras of Malwa
After the death of Bhoj, the Paramars dynasty faced major setbacks, such as Bhoj’s successor Jaysimha, I was jointly attached by Kalachuri- Chalukiya. Several instances can be traced from Bilhana’s writing.
- Jaysimha’s successor Udayaditya’s younger son Narvarman suffered several defeats, including those at the hands of the Chandelas of Jejakabhukti and Chaulukya king Jayasimha Siddharaja.
- Yashovarman surrendered control of the Paramara capital Dhara to Jayasimha Siddharaja. His heir, Jayavarman I, reclaimed Dhara but was quickly deposed by a usurper named Ballala. Around 1150 CE, Kumarapala, the Chaulukya king, defeated Ballala with the help of his feudatories, Naddula Chahamana ruler Alhana and Abu Paramara chief Yashoda Vala.
- Malwa was then designated as a Chalukya province. Jayavarman’s son Vindhyavarman defeated Chalukya king Mularaja II and re-established Paramara sovereignty in Malwa nearly two decades later. During his reign, Malwa was repeatedly invaded by the Hoysalas and the Yadavas of Devagiri. The Paramara dynasty declined as a result of ongoing conflicts.
- The Paramaras is a prominent dynasty in Medieval India. They both rule vast Indian territories. However, internal and external factors led to their decline, and with time, these dynasties failed to rule over the entire Indian subcontinent.
- The Paramaras’ power fluctuated due to conflicts with the Chalukyas of Gujarat, the Chalukyas of Kalyani, the Kalachuris of Tripuri, and other neighboring kingdoms. After their enemies sacked Dhara several times, the later Paramara rulers relocated their capital to Mandapa-Durga (now Mandu). The forces of Alauddin Khalji of Delhi defeated and killed Mahalakadeva (the last known Paramara king) in 1305 CE, effectively ending the Paramara dynasty.