• Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
  • Capital of Gandhara kingdom in 600 B.C.
  • Excavation of Bhir mound showed its NBPW character.
  • Major trade centre and part of Uttarapatha.
  • Part of Silk Road which connected China to the West.
  • Taxila University, world’s oldest University made it a prominent learning centre.
  • At a pivotal junction of three major trade routes – North India, West Asia and Central Asia.
  • Fahein and Hieun Tsang visited it.


  • Sravasti, U.P. near Rapti river. Capital of North Kosala.
  • Pottery NBPW in association with black slip ware, Plain Grey Ware and PGW sherds.
  • Settlement – Initially wattle and daub houses, but later use of burnt bricks is evident. Even fortification
    of burnt bricks suggests their defensive strategies.
  • Copper and iron Objects -Arrowheads, ornaments of copper suggest their metallurgical advances.
  • Important is discovery of eye beads of stratified glass and agate, terracotta disc with Swastika symbol and
    sun symbol.
  • Period- Started around 600 B.C.


  • U.P. on the bank of river Yamuna. Capital of Vatsa kingdom.
  • Settlement -Well planned city development with lanes and by lanes with brick flooring. In early phase,
    timber houses and later burnt bricks houses. Even the fortification wall with guard rooms, towers for
    defence purpose.
  • Artefacts-Iron agricultural equipments, weapons etc were predominant.
  • Other artefacts included that of bone, stone, glass, gold beads, terracotta figurines of human and animal etc.
  • Time-600 B.C. to 550 A.D.
  • Important halting place along the ancient trade route.


  • Chandauli,U.P
  • Coins of various Mahajanpada found. Also, copper punched mark coins of Mauryan age discovered.
  • Terracotta figurines of both humans and animals found.
  • Terracotta discs of Swastika and floral design were common.
  • Artefacts included metal and bone objects.


  • Identified as modern Patna, Bihar.
  • Capital of Maurya Empire and later Sungas and Guptas.
  • Earlier, Udayin shifted capital of Magadha kingdom from Rajgriha to Pataliputra.
  • Great centre of trade and commerce.
  • Megasthenes gave a detailed account of this marvelous city.
  • Third instead of Second Buddhist Council and First Jaina Council held here.


  • Located in district of Vaishali, Bihar.
  • Capital of both Lichchhavis and Vajji confederacy in sixth century BCE and is identified with modern Basarh in North Bihar.
  • World’s first Republic.
  • Time- around 500 BC to 150 BC.
  • Mahavira was born here at Kundagram in 599 BCE.
  • Second Buddhist Council held here.
  • Site of Buddha’s last Sermon.
  • Also, capital of Shishunaga dynasty.
  • Vaishali is renowned as land of ‘Amrapali’ the great Indian courtesman.
  • Finds mention in Fahien and Hieun-Tsang account.
  • Ashokan pillar topped with single lion.


  • Nalanda district, Bihar, surrounded by five hills.
  • First capital of Magadha Mahajanapada under Haryanka dynasty.
  • First Buddhist council held here in Saptaparni caves.
  • Important pilgrimage centre for Buddhists, Jains and Hindus.
  • On Uttarapatha network.
  • Known for Amarvana (dispensary of Jivaka).
  • Pottery- NBPW with black and grey wares.
  • Burial- Half oval pits with elliptical bottoms and short funnels. Time- 500 100 A.D.


  • Junagadh, Gujarat.
  • Period- around 400 B.C. NBPW phase started around 100 A.D.
  • Stone fortification, inscribed skin rubber, NBPW Sherds, BRW ivory objects, terracotta gamesmen and gold bead associated with NBPW phase found.


  • Situated on right bank of Krishna river, Guntur, A.P.
  • Period IB represent NBPW also marks presence of BRW, Red and Black ware.
  • Well preserved earring of plain leaf. Another important find was rectangular piece of glass seal of violet colour with the emblem of a lion in relief stratigraphically dated to first century B.C.


  • 24 Parganas district, West Bengal.
  • Archaeological evidence of NBPW, ring wells, terracotta beads and punched marked coins.
  • Motif of ships on some of the coins suggests trade by sea.
  • Also bone points, dice, terracotta bails, terracotta plaque with elephant on it etc. have been found.
  • Period starts from 4th century B.C.
  • Important terracotta object manufacturing site.

Tamralipti or Tamluk

  • Near the mouth of Ganges in the Midnapore district, West Bengal.
  • Most important sea port and emporium of trade in Eastern India.
  • Discovery of Roulette wave and red polished ware of Roman type indicate trade contracts.
  • Archaeological finds include terracotta figurines and plaques, coins, beads of semi- precious stone.


  • Bhubaneswar, Odisha.
  • Ancient name – Tosali as given in Ashokan inscription and Kalinganagar – Capital of Kharvela kingdom.
  • Earliest fortified centre of Orissa.
  • Time- 3rd century BC to 4th century CE.
  • Pottery- NBPW, Rouletted ware, BRW.
  • Iron caltrops is an interesting find.
  • Other Artefacts– Terracotta and stone beads, terracotta figurine and coins, important implements and weapons.
  • In later part, was a coin minting centre as suggested by finding of two coin moulds.


  • A PGW and NBPW site.
  • NBPW period -600 B.C. to 200 B.C. Emerged as town centre.
  • 450 sherds of NBPW found in ill period. It was a luxury item as suggested by finding of rivetted pots.
  • Also punch marked coins and uninscribed cast copper coins found.
  • Houses made of burnt bricks and stone unearthed.


  • Meerut district, U.P
  • A BRW, PGW and NBPW site, mentioned in Mahabharat (Capital of Kuru) and Purana.
  • Well planned city structure during this phase, with an elaborate drainage system.
  • Archeological findings include punch marked coins of silver and copper indicating developed economy, terracotta human and animal figurines, beads of semi-precious stone and glass, etc.
  • Time- 600B.C. – 200 A.D.


  • A BRW, PGW and NBPW site.
  • Fourth phase was NBPW.
  • Period- NBPW phase started before 300 B.C.
  • Various coins have been discovered, including that of Kushanas.
  • Caste coins followed by Panchala coins of first century BC, Kushan coins.


  • BRW, PGW and BPW site.
  • Period IV is NBPW and has carinated handis and pear shaped vessel.
  • Use of burnt bricks.
  • A tiny bird figurine of bone, a copper miniature vase, iron hoe and a piece of mosaic and
    terracotta blocks have been excavated.
  • Several pottery kiln and blacksmith furnace excavated.


  • Period IV is NBPW phase.
  • Three phases of mud brick structure have been noticed.

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