• Pratap Singh I popularly known as Maharana Pratap was born to Udai Singh II of Mewar Rajasthan. and Jaiwanta Bai in 9th May 1540, the year in which Udai Singh ascended to the throne after defeating Vanvir Singh.
  • Maharana Pratap was the 13th Maharana of Mewar known for his valiant and spirited defence against the Mughal Empire. He was one of the bravest Rajput rulers of India, who ruled Mewar in Rajasthan for 35 years. While other Rajput rulers accepted the supremacy of Akbar, he was one of the few rulers in Indian history who stood firm against the mighty Mughal Empire.

Early Life of Maharana Pratap

  • Maharana Pratap belonged to the Sisodia clan of the Rajputs of Mewar. His younger brothers were Shakti Singh, Vikram Singh and Jagmal Singh. Pratap also had two stepsisters: Chand Kanwar and Man Kanwar.
  • Maharana Pratap Wives
    • Maharani Ajabde Punwar (also known as Phool Kanwar) – She was Maharana Pratap’s first wife and a source of great support and inspiration for him.
    • Maharani Solanki Bai (also known as Rani Dheer Bai or Rani Bai Sa) – She was another of Maharana Pratap’s wives and the mother of his son, Amar Singh.
  • Maharana Pratap Children
    • Amar Singh – He succeeded Maharana Pratap as the ruler of Mewar after his death.
    • Kunwar Shakti Singh – He was another son of Maharana Pratap.
    • Kunwar Veer Singh – He was also one of Maharana Pratap’s sons.
  • Upon the death of Udai Singh in 1572 there was a brief tussle on who would succeed the throne of Mewar. Maharana Pratap had other stepbrothers who were also vying for the throne of Mewar. However, the senior nobles in his father’s court wanted Pratap Singh to succeed as he was the eldest son of Udai Singh II, thus Maharana Pratap took over the throne of Mewar’s royal family at the age of 32 on 1st March 1572.
  • He was the 13th King of Mewar and was the eldest son of Udai Singh II
  • Maharana Udai Singh II ruled the kingdom of Mewar, with his capital at Chittor.
    • Udai Singh II was also a founder of the city of Udaipur (Rajasthan).
Maharana Pratap

Military Career of Maharana Pratap

Battle of Haldighati

  • Mughal Emperor Akbar wanted to stabilise his Empire by capturing the regional kingdoms, including the Rajputana region.
    • Almost all the Rajput rulers submitted to Akbar, but it was Maharana Pratap who refused to bend the knee and posed a fierce challenge to the mighty Mughal empire.
    • As a result of the failure of all diplomatic efforts to persuade Maharana Pratap, the battle was the only way left to decide the fate of Mewar.
    • The famous battle between Maharana Pratap and Akbar’s Army led by Raja Man Singh-1 of Amer at Haldighati took place on 18 June 1576.
    • The battle was fought in a narrow mountain pass near Gogunda, the makeshift capital of Mewar in Rajasthan.
    • After a fierce struggle, eventually, the Mughals emerged victorious but were unable to capture Maharana Pratap or any important family member of the Sisodiya dynasty.
    • Therefore, the victory at the Battle of Haldighati was almost fruitless. Maharana Pratap recaptured the Western region of his Empire soon after the battle.

Post-Haldighati Mughal invasions

  • Shahbaz Khan Kamboh led multiple invasions that resulted in the subjugation of key areas in Mewar, such as KumbhalgarhMandalgarh, Gogunda, and Central Mewar, bringing them permanently under Mughal rule.
  • The Mughal Empire established its supremacy in Mewar after Shahbaz Khan’s invasions. This ultimately led to a significant weakening of Pratap’s power, forcing him to retreat to his hilly abode.

Revival of Mewar

  • Maharana Pratap took refuge in the Chappan area and started attacking the Mughal strongholds.
  • By 1583 he had successfully captured western Mewar, which included Dewar, Amet, Madariya, Zawar and the fort of Kumbalgarh. He then made Chavand his capital and constructed a Chamunda mata temple there.
  • The Maharana was able to live in peace for a short time and started establishing order in Mewar.
  • The Mughals shifted their attention to Punjab and other north-western provinces after Jaganath Kachwaha’s invasion of Mewar.
  • Pratap took advantage of this situation to attack the Mughal occupied areas of Mewar and captured thirty-six Mughal outposts.
  • Udaipur, Mohi, Gogunda, Mandal and Pandwara were some of the important areas that were recaptured from this conflict.
  • According to the 1588 inscription near Jahazpur, the Rana gave the lands of Pander to a trusted follower called Sadulnath Trivedi.
  • G.N. Sharma claims that the Pander inscription is proof that the Rana had occupied north-eastern Mewar and was granting lands to those who had been loyal to him.
  • From 1585 till his death, the Rana had recovered a large part of Mewar.
  • The citizens who had migrated out of Mewar started returning during this time. There was good monsoon which helped to revive the agriculture of Mewar.
  • The economy also started getting better and trade in the area started increasing.
  • The Rana was able to capture the territories around Chittor but could not fulfill his dream of capturing Chittor itself.
Siege of Chittorgarh
  • During his military career, Maharana Pratap faced the infamous Siege of Chittorgarh. The fort of Chittorgarh was under the control of Maharana Pratap.
  • It was surrounded and besieged by the forces of the Mughal emperor Akbar. The siege lasted for several months.
  • During this, the defenders of Chittorgarh valiantly resisted the enemy’s attacks. Despite facing hardships and scarcity of resources, Maharana Pratap and his forces displayed unwavering courage and determination in defending their fort.
Battle of Dewair
  • The Battle of Dewair was a significant conflict in Maharana Pratap’s military career. It took place between the forces of Maharana Pratap and the Mughal army led by Man Singh I.
  • Maharana Pratap and his troops engaged in fierce combat with the Mughals. Maharana Pratap’s strategic maneuvers allowed them to hold their ground and inflict heavy losses on the enemy.
  • The Battle of Dewair showcased Maharana Pratap’s military prowess. It also showed his commitment to defending his kingdom.
Battle of Gogunda
  • The Battle of Gogunda was a crucial confrontation in Maharana Pratap’s military journey. It occurred between the forces of Maharana Pratap and the combined armies of the Mughals and the ruler of Mewar, Raja Udai Singh.
  • In this battle, Maharana Pratap demonstrated his tactical skills and leadership abilities. Despite facing internal conflicts and betrayal, Maharana Pratap’s forces fought bravely. They pushed back the enemy and secured victory. The Battle of Gogunda highlighted Maharana Pratap’s resilience and determination to protect his kingdom.
Battle of Rakhtalai
  • The Battle of Rakhtalai was a notable engagement in Maharana Pratap’s military career. It took place between the forces of Maharana Pratap and the Mughal army led by Asaf Khan.
  • In this battle, Maharana Pratap’s troops fought fiercely against the Mughals. Despite being outnumbered, they inflicted heavy casualties on the enemy and emerged victorious. 

Maharana Pratap’s Sword

  • King Maharana Pratap brandished a pair of 25 kg swords, making them the heaviest swords known to have existed. These remarkable weapons are currently preserved in an Indian museum for their protection.
  • Historians assert that they were employed by King Maharana Pratap during the Battle of Haldighati, where he confronted the Mughals.

Maharana Pratap- Administration, Culture, Art, Literature, Religious

  • The administration, culture, and other aspects of Mewar under Maharana Pratap were influenced by the contemporary Rajputana structure.


  • Maharana Pratap was an able administrator. This is evident from the fact that even in the face of constant attacks and hostilities from the Mughals, he maintained smooth administration and also shifted his capital to Kumbhalgarh and later Chavand but never let the administrative structure fall apart.
  • Moreover, his able military administration led to the success in the battle of Dewar/ Dewair in 1582 and, later on, the capture of 36 Mughal military outposts in the Mewar region.

Art, Culture, and Literature

  • After Maharana Pratap made Chavand his capital, he patronised many writers and artisans. This led to the development of the Chavand School of Art.
  • He also had renowned artists like Nasiruddin in his court.


  • Maharana Pratap was a practising Hindu, and he stood alone against the Mughals to safeguard Hindu pride and Rajput Honor.
  • A large majority of the population of Mewar was also Hindu.

Maharana Pratap Legacy and Impact

  • Maharana Pratap’s unwavering dedication to his people and homeland made him a symbol of Rajput pride and an embodiment of the “Rajputana” spirit. Even after his death on January 19, 1597, Pratap’s legacy continued to inspire generations of Indians. He left behind a united Mewar, which remained fiercely independent, even during the reign of his successors.
    • Beyond regional significance, Maharana Pratap’s story has become a timeless tale of valor and patriotism, celebrated across India.
    • His life journey has been immortalized in numerous folk songs, literature, and television adaptations, further cementing his status as a national hero.
    • Maharana Pratap’s life was an epitome of courage, resilience, and sacrifice. Despite facing overwhelming odds and challenges, he never wavered in his commitment to protect his motherland and preserve the values of his people.
  • His name will forever be etched in history as a true warrior-king, who fought not just for personal glory but for the honor and freedom of his people. Maharana Pratap’s legacy serves as a shining beacon of inspiration for all those who strive for justice, liberty, and the triumph of the human spirit.

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