• Laclrit Borphukan was born on 24 November 1622 at Charaideo in Assam.
    • He was the youngest son of Momai Tamuli Borbarua and Kunti Moran. He was born in a royal family.
    • Borphukan was originally named Lachit Deca.
  • Momai Tarnuli Borbarua was the commander-in-chief of ‘the Ahorn army, he was the 1st Borbarua (Phu-Ke-Lung) of upper-Assam and Commander-in-Chief of the Ahom army) under Prataap Singha. Momai Tamuli Barbarua was a founder of Paik practices.
    • Borphukan, similar to a ‘Senapati’ or ‘Field Marshal’, was a title bestowed by the Kings of Ahom in their courts.
  • Lachit Borphukan rose to become the head of the Ahom army under King Chakradhwaj.
Lachit Borphukan
  • Ahom kings ruled what is now called Assam and parts of other neighbouring states for nearly 600 years between the 13th and 19th centuries.
  • The kingdom witnessed many threats between 1615 and 1682 from the Mughals – first Jahangir and later Aurangzeb
  • The Mughal-Ahom conflict first began in 1615 and continued afterwards. lt was in this backdrop Lachit grew up in. Lachit possessed his early education at his own residence.
    • He completed his eclucation in humanities and military strategies. Besides Momai Tarnuli appointed domestic teacher to make Lachit Borphukan a mark with proper education and educated him in the subject of Ahom scripture, Hindu religion, economics etc.
  • The Ahom rulers made significant counterattacks between 1667 and 1682 to regain their occupied territories. Barphukon was a major part of the battles fought during this period.

Military Career

  • Lachit Borphukan held various positions in the kingdom including ‘Soladhara Barua’ (scarf-bearer of the Ahom king), ‘Ghora Barua’ (manager of the royal stable), commander of Simulgarh Fort and ‘Dolakaxaria Barua’ (superintendent of royal household guards) of king Chakradhwaj Singha.
  • He was appointed as the Borphukan, the Commander-in-Chief of the Ahom army, a position of great responsibility.
  • Lachit Borphukan inspired the Assamese soldiers in the Battle of Saraighat fought in 1671, and delivered a crushing and humiliating defeat on the Mughals.
  • Led two battles against an alien Mughal army.

Battle of Alaboi

  • Fought on August 51669 in the Alaboi Hills near Dadara in North Guwahati.
  • Aurangzeb had ordered the invasion in 1669 under his ally Rajput Raja Ram Singh I who led a combined Mughal and Rajput army
  • Borphukan engaged in guerrilla warfare, assaulting the invaders and then falling back until Ram Singh I unleashed his entire forces on the Ahoms, defeating them in the Battle of Alaboi.
  • 10,000 Ahoms had lost their lives in the battle.

Battle of Saraighat (1671)

  • The Battle of Saraighat fought in 1671, was a decisive conflict between the Ahom Kingdom and the Mughal Empire. The greatest naval battle ever fought on a river.
  • In Saraighat, Barphukon was able to coax a naval battle with the Mughals on the waters of the Brahmaputra by “feigning an attack with a few ships from the front”.
    • Barphukon was seriously ill during the battle but when he heard of the Mughal fleet was making advances, he forgot about his illness and led his soldiers from the front.
  • The Ahom army launched a massive attack on the invaders and when the Mughal admiral Munnawar Khan was killed by a gunshot, the Mughal naval force became leaderless and they could not maintain the attack and ultimately had to retreat.
    • The heroic fight of Lachit Borphukan and his army remains one of the most inspiring military feats of resistance in the history of our country.
    • The Mughals were at the height of their power but failed to conquer Assam and the Northeast and consolidate their rule.
    • 17 attempts were made by the Mughals to conquer Assam but they failed every time.
  • The Mughals never attempted to capture Assam after the 1671 war.
  • Barphukon died in Kaliabor on 25 April 1672 at the age of 50.

Legacy of Lachit Borphukan

  • Lachit Borphukan is celebrated as a hero and a symbol of resistance in Assamese history.
  • His leadership and valor in the Battle of Saraighat are remembered during the annual Lachit Divas, a celebration in Assam to honor his contributions.
  • Statues, memorials, and awards have been dedicated to Lachit Borphukan as a tribute to his role in defending Assam against external invasions.
  • On 24 November each year, Lachit Divas is celebrated statewide in Assam to commemorate the heroism of Lachit Borphukan and the victory of the Assamese army at the Battle of Saraighat.
  • The best cadet from the National Defence Academy is awarded the Lachit Borphukan gold medal. It was first instituted in 1999 to inspire defence personnel to emulate Borphukan’s heroism and sacrifices.
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi unveiled a 125-foot bronze statue of Ahom general Lachit Borphukan at his burial site in eastern Assam’s Jorhat district.
The Statue of Valour 
The Statue of Valour 

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