- Gold is a valuable metal. Gold usually occurs in auriferous [(of rocks or minerals) containing gold] rocks.
- It is also found in the sands of several rivers which are called as alluvial gold.
- Gold is used for making ornaments; it is also known as an international currency due to its universal use.
- Gold production in India is insufficient and is imported from Australia, Canada, and Myanmar.
- Countries with significant deposits: South Africa, Australia, Indonesia, Canada, Ghana, Chile, China, USA, Russia etc.
Gold Reserves in India
Resources in terms of the metal ore (primary) are located in
- Bihar (45 percent)
- Rajasthan (23 percent)
- Karnataka (22 percent)
- West Bengal (3 percent)
- Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh (2 percent each)
Resources in terms of metal content
- Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, etc.
Kolar Gold Field, Hutti Gold Field and Ramgiri Gold Field are the most important gold fields.
- Karnataka is the largest producers of Gold, accounts for about 80% of Gold production.
- Although every district of Karnataka has some reserves of Gold, the most important reserves are those of “Kolar Gold Field”. This field continues to be the largest supplier of Gold in India.
- Next to Kolar Goldfield, but far below in production, is the “Hutti Mine” in the Raichur district. The ore of Hutti Mine is of low grade.
Andhra Pradesh –
- Andhra Pradesh is the second-largest producer of Gold, though it lags far behind Karnataka.
- The main deposits of Gold are found in Ramagiri in Anantapur District. However, this field is nearly exhausted.
- Apart from Gold Mines, Gold is also obtained as placer deposits i.e. in the sands of the river.
- Jharkhand is the 3rd largest producer of Gold and accounts for about 10% of total Gold production.
- Here both ‘Placer Deposits’ in the sands of Subarnarekha, Sonanadi, etc, and ‘native Gold’ in Singhbhum District and in some parts of Chhota Nagpur plateau are found.
- The river terraces along the Punna Puzha and the Chabiyar Puzha have some alluvial gold.
List of Gold Mines in India
|Hatti Gold Mines||Karnataka|
|Kolar Gold Fields||Karnataka|
|Lava Gold Mines||Jharkhand|
|Sonbhadra Mine||Uttar Pradesh|
- Silver is also a precious metal that is used in India for religious ceremonies, festivals, weddings, and many other cultural events. It is valued next to gold for making ornaments.
- It is found mixed with several other metals such as copper, lead, gold, zinc, etc.
- Silver is used in the manufacture of chemicals, electroplating, photography and for coloring glass, etc.
- India is not a major producer of silver. Most of the silver consumption in India is driven by imports.
- It occurs generally with lead, zinc, copper, and gold ores and is extracted as a byproduct of electrolysis or chemical methods.
- Rajasthan is the largest producer followed by Gujarat and Jharkhand.
- The major production of Silver comes from “Zawar mines” in Udaipur (Rajasthan). Here Silver is obtained as a by-product of Galena ore (lead) in Hindustan Zinc Smelter.
- Silver is also produced by Kolar Goldfields and Hutti Gold Fields during the refining of Gold.
- The Tundoo lead smelter in the Dhanbad district (Jharkhand) produces silver as a byproduct of lead.
- Silver is also produced by Vizag Zinc smelter in Andhra Pradesh from the lead concentrates.
- Traces of silver are also found in Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Jammu and Kashmir, and Uttarakhand.
List of Silver Mines in India
|Silver Mines||State (Description)|
|Sindesar Khurd Mine||The Sindesar Khurd Mine is an underground mine located in Rajasthan. It is owned by Vedanta Resources and produced an estimated 11,804 Thousand Ounces of silver in 2020. The mine will operate until 2025.|
|Rampura Agucha Mine||Located in Rajasthan, the Rampura Agucha Mine is owned by Vedanta Resources. The underground mine produced an estimated 5,154 Thousand Ounces of silver in 2020. The mine will operate until 2027.|
|Zawar Mine||The Zawar Mine is located in Rajasthan. It is owned by Vedanta Resources and produced an estimated 1,331 Thousand Ounces of silver in 2020. The mine will operate until 2022.|
|Rajpura Dariba Mine||The Rajpura Dariba Mine, owned by Vedanta Resources, is an underground mine located in Rajasthan. The mine produced an estimated 1,007 Thousand Ounces of silver in 2020. The mine will operate until 2024.|
|Hutti Mine||Owned by Hutti Gold Mines Company, the Hutti Mine is an underground mine located in Karnataka. It produced an estimated 6.851 Thousand Ounces of silver in 2020.|