In this article You will read the Environment and Ecology Questions for UPSC Mains – 2020 – 2013.

Environment, Pollution, Disaster Management

Mains Syllabus:

Conservation, environmental pollution, and degradation, environmental impact assessment

Disaster and disaster management.

Environment and Ecology Questions for UPSC Mains – 2020

  1. How does the draft Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) Notification, 2020 differ from the existing EIA Notification, 2006? (10m, 150words)
  2. What are the salient features of the Jal Shakti Abhiyan? launches by the Government of India for water conservation and water security? (10m, 150words)
  3. Describe the benefits of deriving electric energy from sunlight in contrast to conventional energy generation. What are the initiatives offered by our Government for this purpose? (15m, 250words)
  4. What are the key features of the National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) initiated by the Government of India? (15m, 250words)
  5. Discuss the recent measures initiated in disaster management by the Government of India departing from the earlier reactive approach. (15m, 250words)


  1. Define the concept of carrying capacity of an ecosystem as relevant to an environment. Explain how understanding this concept is vital while planning for the sustainable development of a region.
  2. Coastal sand mining, whether legal or illegal, poses one of the biggest threats to our environment. Analyze the impact of sand mining along the Indian coasts, citing specific examples.


  1. What are the impediments disposing the huge quantities of discarded solid waste which are continuously being generated? How do we remove safely the toxic wastes that have been accumulated in our habitable environment?           
  2. What is a wetland? Explain the Ramsar concept of ‘wise use’ in the context of wetland conservation. Cite two examples of Ramsar sites from India.
  3. Sikkim is the first ‘Organic State’ in India. What are the ecological and economical benefits of Organic State?
  4. How does biodiversity vary in India? How is the Biological Diversity Act, 2002 helpful in conservation of flora and fauna?


  1. Not many years ago, river linking was a concept but it is becoming reality in the country. Discuss the advantages of river linking and its possible impact on the environment.
  2. ‘Climate change’ is a global problem. How India will be affected by climate change? How Himalayan and coastal states of India will be affected by climate change?


  1. Rehabilitation of human settlements is one of the important environmental impacts which always attracts controversy while planning major projects. Discuss the measures suggested for mitigation of this impact while proposing major developmental projects.


  1. Discuss the Namami Gange and National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) programmes and the causes of mixed results from the previous schemes. What quantum leaps can help preserve the river Ganga better than incremental inputs?


  1. Environmental Impact Assessment studies are increasingly undertaken before a project is cleared by the Government. Discuss the environmental impacts of coal-fired thermal plants located at coal pitheads.


  1. What are the consequences of Illegal mining? Discuss the Ministry of Environment and Forests’ concept of GO AND NO GO zones for the coal mining sector.
  2. Enumerate the National Water Policy of India. Taking the river Ganges as an example, discuss the strategies which may be adopted for river water pollution control and management. What are the legal provisions of the management and handling of hazardous wastes in India?
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