Defence Research and Development Organisation – UPSC

In this article, You will read Organizations related to Defence Technology i.e. Ministry of Defence, Defence Research and Development Organisation(DRDO), Defense acquisition organization (DAO), etc.

Ministry of Defence

Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)

DRDO works under the administrative control of the Ministry of Defence, Government of India.

It is working to establish world-class science and technology base for India and provides our Defence Services decisive edge by equipping them with internationally competitive systems and solutions.

Genesis & Growth

  • DRDO was established in 1958 after combining Technical Development Establishment (TDEs) of the Indian Army and the Directorate of Technical Development & Production (DTDP) with the Defence Science Organisation (DSO).
  • Starting with 10 laboratories, DRDO has now grown to a network of 52 laboratories which are deeply engaged in developing defense technologies covering various disciplines, like aeronautics, armaments, electronics, combat vehicles, engineering systems, instrumentation, missiles, advanced computing and simulation, special materials, naval systems, life sciences, training, information systems, and agriculture.
  • Presently, the Organisation is backed by over 5000 scientists and about 25,000 other scientific, technical, and supporting personnel.
  • Several major projects for the development of missiles, armaments, light combat aircraft, radars, electronic warfare systems, etc are on hand and significant achievements have already been made in several such technologies.

Mission

  • Design, develop, and lead to the production of state-of-the-art sensors, weapon systems, platforms, and allied equipment for our Defence Services.
  • Provide technological solutions to the Services to optimize combat effectiveness and to promote the well-being of the troops.
  • Develop infrastructure and committed quality manpower and build a strong indigenous technology base.

Defence Space Research Agency

The Cabinet Committee on Security headed by Prime Minister has cleared the setting up of this new agency called the Defence Space Research Agency (DSRO) which has been entrusted with the task of creating space warfare weapon systems and technologies.

  • The agency would be provided with a team of scientists who would be working in close coordination with the tri-services integrated defense staff officers.
  • The agency would be providing the research and development support to the Defence Space Agency (DSA) which comprises members of the three services.
  • The DSA has been created to help the country fight wars in space.
  • The Defence Space Agency is being set up in Bengaluru under an Air Vice Marshal-rank officer and will gradually take over the space-related capabilities of the three forces.
  • India’s existing military space agencies — including the Defence Imagery Processing and Analysis Centre, located in New Delhi, and the Defence Satellite Control Centre, located in Bhopal — will be merged with DSA.

 Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP)

The Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP) was an Indian Ministry of Defense program between the early 1980s and 2007 for the development of a comprehensive range of missiles from short-range to long-range.

IGMDP was the brainchild of renowned scientist Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam. It was intended to attain self-sufficiency in the field of missile technology.

  • IGMDP was conceived in response to the Missile Technology Control Regime that decided to restrict access to any technology that would help India in its missile development program.
  • To counter the MTCR, the IGMDP team formed a consortium of DRDO laboratories, industries, and academic institutions to build these sub-systems, components, and materials.

After keeping in mind the requirements of various types of missiles by the defense forces, the program recognized the need to develop five missile systems.

It included the development of multiple ranges and multiple capability missiles. Missiles developed under it are Aakash, Nag, Agni-1, Prithvi, etc.

Four projects, to be pursued concurrently, were born under the IGMDP:

  • Short-range surface-to-surface missile (code-named Prithvi)
  • Short-range low-level surface-to-air missile (code-named Trishul)
  • Medium range surface-to-air missile (code-named Akash) and
  • Third-generation anti-tank missile (code-named Nag).
  • Intermediate-range surface to surface ballistic missile (code-named Agni)-Later separated

The Agni, which was initially conceived as a technology demonstrator project in the form of a re-entry vehicle, was later upgraded to a ballistic missile with different ranges. Dr. Kalam played a major role in the development and operationalization of Agni and Prithvi missiles.

The Agni missile is a family of medium to intercontinental-range ballistic missiles developed by
India, named after one of the five elements of nature.

  • Agni missiles are long-range, nuclear weapons capable surface to surface ballistic missile.
  • The first missile of the series, Agni-I was developed under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program and tested in 1989.
  • After its success, the Agni missile program was separated from the IGMDP upon realizing its strategic importance.
  • It was designated as a special program in India’s defense budget and provided adequate funds for subsequent development.

After achieving the goal of making India self-reliant in missile technology, DRDO on January 8, 2008, formally announced the successful completion of IGMDP.

Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)

MTCR an informal grouping established in 1987 by Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States to limit the proliferation of missiles and missile technology.

The MTCR seeks to limit the risks of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD).

MTCR places particular focus on rockets and unmanned aerial vehicles capable of delivering a payload of at least 500 kg to a range of at least 300 km.

The MTCR is not a treaty and does not impose any legally binding obligations.

Defense Acquisition Organization (DAO)

In an effort to make the procurement process more effective and accountable and secure defense procurement system and realize the ‘Make in India‘ move, the Indian MoD is also planning to have a separate body for defense procurement.

The Defence Acquisition organization as recommended by Pritam Singh Committee, to be a new autonomous organization created under the Ministry of Defence (MoD) to deal with the procurement of the Armed Forces.

It will function within the defense ministry and will be in charge of formulating policy, planning, and executing weapons purchases for the Armed Forces.

The motive is to create an organization that will not fall under the ambit of normal rules of the government. To make the organization autonomous, it would be funded with a certain percentage of the funds that it utilizes every financial year. In the first year, the amount would be approximately Rs 400 crore.

Principles and Organizational Structure

Basic guiding principles suggested for its functioning to be an autonomous, decentralized decision-making defense procurement organization(DPO) with accountability and transparency with a manage delivery within the agreed PTCR (Performance, Cost, Time, and Risk) envelope as per the annual acquisition plans based on:

  • Risk management rather than risk avoidance
  • Individual rather than group accountability.
  • A quarterly measure of performance with the internal customers (Army, Navy, Air Force)
  • The process should be differentiated into three broad steps with autonomy and accountability.
  • Technical requirements identification.

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mawii hlawnchhing

So appreciated your works you deserve more supports

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