Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) Scheme is the Centre’s flagship programme (under the Women and Child Development Ministry) for women’s empowerment, which focuses on the education of girlschild and improving the sex ratio.
It was launched in January 2015 to address sex-selective abortion and the declining child sex ratio which was at 918 girls for every 1,000 boys in 2011.
The name Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao translates to ‘Save the girl child, educate the girl child.
The scheme aims to educate citizens against gender bias and improve the efficacy of welfare services for girls. It was launched with initial funding of Rs. 100 crore (US$ 13.5 million).
The programme is operational in 405 districts at present and now have been extended to all Districts.
It mainly targets the clusters in Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Punjab, Bihar and Delhi.
The Govt of India has formed a National Executive Committee to promote Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) across the country. The committee is organizing several programs to promote “Save Girl Child” and “to Educate Girl Child” since January 2015.
Reasons for Beti Bachao Beti Padhao initiative
Sex-selective abortion or female foeticide has led to a sharp drop in the ratio of girls born in contrast to boy infants in some states in India. Ultrasound technology has made it possible for pregnant women and their families to learn the sex of a foetus early in a pregnancy.
Discrimination against girl infants, for several reasons, has combined with the technology to result in a rise in abortions of foetuses identified as female during ultrasonic testing.
The trend was first noticed when results of the 1991 national census were released and were confirmed to be a worsening problem when results of the 2001 national census were released. The reduction in the female population of certain Indian states continues to worsen, as results of the 2011 national census have shown.
The dowry system in India is often blamed; the expectation that a large dowry must be provided for daughters for them to marry is frequently cited as a major cause of the problem.
Rates of female foeticide in Madhya Pradesh are increasing; the rate of live births was 932 girls per 1000 boys in 2001, which dropped to 918 by 2011.
Main Objectives of Beti Bachao Beti Padhao
Improve the child sex ratio
Prevention of gender-biased sex-selective elimination.
Ensure gender equality and women empowerment
Ensuring survival & protection of the girl child.
Ensuring education and participation of the girl child.
Protecting Rights of Girl children.
Performance Analysis of BBBP Scheme
Sex Ratio at Birth:
Sex Ratio at Birth (SRB) has improved by 16 points from 918 (2014-15) to 934 (2019-20), as per the Health Management Information System (HMIS) data.
Notable Examples (Districts):
Mau (Uttar Pradesh) from 694 (2014-15) to 951 (2019-20),
Karnal (Haryana) from 758 (2014-15) to 898 (2019-20),
Mahendergarh (Haryana) from 791 (2014-15) to 919 (2019-20), etc.
ANC Registration: Percentage of 1st Trimester ANC (AnteNatal Care) Registration has shown an improving trend from 61% in 2014-15 to 71% in 2019-20.
Institutional Deliveries: The percentage of Institutional Deliveries has shown an improving trend from 87% in 2014-15 to 94% in 2019-20.
Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER): GER of girls in the schools at the secondary level has improved from 77.45 (2014-15) to 81.32 (2018-19) as per Unified District Information System for Education (UDISE) provisional data.
Toilet for girls: The percentage of schools with functional separate toilets for girls has shown improvement from 92.1% in 2014-15 to 95.1% in 2018-19.
The BBBP scheme has been able to bring the focus on the important issue of female infanticide, lack of education amongst girls and deprivation of their rights on a life cycle continuum.
BetiJanmotsav is one of the key programmes celebrated in each district.