Political Science Optional topic wise Questions-UPSC (PDF)

In this article, You can read some Political Science Optional topic wise Questions and You can also download Political Science Optional topic wise Question Papers with the last 7 years Question Papers for UPSC (PDF).

The analysis of previous year papers suggests that more than 90% of questions are asked from just 75% of the total PSIR syllabus. This highlights the importance this PDF book carries in PSIR preparation. We are very glad to present you with an ebook that can completely transform the way you prepare for your optional.

Political Science Optional – Paper I and Paper II (Syllabus)

Paper – 1 : Political Theory and Indian Politics

Political Theory

1. Political theory meaning and approaches

2. Theories of the state: Liberal, Neoliberal, Marxist, Pluralist, Post-colonial and feminist.

3. Justice: Conceptions of justice with special reference to Rawl’s theory of justice and its communitarian critiques.

4. Equality: Social, political and economic relationship between equality and freedom; Affirmative action.

5. Rights: Meaning and theories; different kinds of rights; concept of Human Rights.

6. Democracy: Classical and contemporary theories; different models of democracy’ representative, participatory and deliberative.

7. Concept of power, hegemony, ideology and legitimacy.

8. Political Ideologies: Liberalism, Socialism, Marxism, Fascism, Gandhism and Feminism.

9. Indian Political Thought: Dharamshastra, Arthashastra and Buddhist traditions ; Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, S r i Aurobindo, M.K. Gandhi, B.R. Ambedkar,M.N. Roy .

10. Western Political Thought :Plato ,Aristotle, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, John,S. Mill, Marx, Gramsci, Hannah Arendt.

Indian Government and Politics

1.Indian Nationalism: a. Political Strategies of India’s Freedom struggle : constitutionalism to mass Satyagraha, Non-cooperation, Civil Disobedience ; millitant and revolutionary movements, Peasant and workers’ movements.
b. Perspectives on Indian National Movement: Liberal, Socialist and Marxist; Radical humanist and Dalit.

2. Making of the Indian Constitution: Legacies of the British rule; different social and political perspectives.

3. Salient Features of the Indian Constitution: The Preamble, Fundamental Rights and Duties, Directive Principles; Parliamentary System and Amendment Procedures; Judicial Review and Basic Structure doctrine.

4. a. Principal Organs of the Union Government: Envisaged role and actual working of the Executive, Legislature and Supreme Court.
b. Principal Organs of the State Government: Envisaged role and actual working of the Executive, Legislature and High Courts.

5. Grassroots Democracy: Panchayati Raj and Municipal Government; significance of 73rd and 74th Amendments; Grassroot movements.

6. Statutory Institutions/Commissions: Election Commission, Comptroller and Auditor General, Finance Commission, Union Public Service Commission, National Commission for Scheduled Castes, National Comission for scheduled Tribes, National Commission for Women; National Human Rights Commission, National Commission for Minorities, National Backward Classes Commission.

7. Federalism: Constitutional provisions; changing nature of centre-state relations; integrationist tendencies and regional aspirations; inter-state disputes.

8. Planning and Economic Development : Nehruvian and Gandhian perspectives; role of planning and public sector; Green Revolution, land reforms and agrarian relations; liberalilzation and economic reforms.

9. Caste, Religion and Ethnicity in Indian Politics.

10. Party System: National and regional political parties, ideological and social bases of parties; patterns of coalition politics; Pressure groups, trends in electoral behaviour; changing socio- economic profile of Legislators.

11. Social Movements: Civil liberties and human rights movements; women’s movements; environmentalist movements

Paper – 2 : Comparative Politics and International Relations

Comparative Political Analysis and International Politics

1. Comparative Politics: Nature and major approaches; political economy and political sociology perspectives; limitations of the comparative method.

2. State in comparative perspective: Characteristics and changing nature of the State in capitalist and socialist economies, and, advanced industrial and developing societies.

3. Politics of Representation and Participation: Political parties, pressure groups and social movements in advanced industrial and developing societies.

4. Globalisation: Responses from developed and developing societies.

5. Approaches to the Study of International Relations: Idealist, Realist, Marxist, Functionalist and Systems theory.

6. Key concepts in International Relations: National interest, Security and power; Balance of power and deterrence; Transnational actors and collective security; World capitalist economy and globalisation.

7. Changing International Political Order:
a. Rise of super powers; strategic and ideological Bipolarity, arms race and Cold War; nuclear threat;
b. Non-al igned movement : Aims and achievements;
c. Collapse of the Soviet Union; Unipolarity and American hegemony; relevance of non-alignment in the contemporary world.

8. Evolution of the International Economic System: From Brettonwoods to WTO; Socialist economies and the CMEA (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance); Third World demand for new international economic order; Globalisation of the world economy.

9. United Nations: Envisaged role and actual record; specialized UN agencies-aims and functioning; need for UN reforms.

10. Regionalisation of World Politics: EU, ASEAN, APEC, SAARC, NAFTA.

11. Contemporary Global Concerns: Democracy, human rights, environment, gender justice, terrorism, nuclear proliferation.

India and the World:

1. Indian Foreign Policy: Determinants of foreign policy; institutions of policy-making; continuity and change.
2. India’s Contribution to the Non-Alignment Movement: Different phases; current role

3. India and South Asia:
a. Regional Co-operation: SAARC’ past performance and future prospects.
b. South Asia as a Free Trade Area.
c. India’s “Look East” policy.
d. Impediments to regional co-operation: river water disputes; illegal cross-border migration; ethnic conflicts and insurgencies; border disputes.

4. India and the Global South: Relations with Africa and Latin America; leadership role in the demand for NIEO and WTO negotiations.

5. India and the Global Centres of Power: USA, EU, Japan, China and Russia.

6. India and the UN System: Role in UN Peace-keeping; demand for Permanent Seat in the Security Council.

7. India and the Nuclear Question: Changing perceptions and policy.

8. Recent developments in Indian Foreign policy: India’s position on the recent crisis in Afghanistan, Iraq, and West Asia, growing relations with US and Israel; vision of a new world order.

Political Science Optional topic wise Questions


Meaning, scope and significance of public Administration

  1. “Public Administration is constantly being reinvented because it is contextual.” Elaborate.
  2. “the scope of the discipline of Public Administration is determined by what an administrative system does.” Does it mean that the scope of this discipline is boundaryless? Explain.
  3. “Political and administrative systems have reciprocal relationship.” Discuss.
  4. “Public Administration is the translation of politics into reality that citizens see every day.” (Donald F. Kettl and James W. Fesler) Explain.
  5. “British philosophy of Administration is based on a unification of science of Administration with ethics.” Analyze.
  6. How did traditional public administration “resolve a fundamentally irresolvable problem- creating an administration strong enough to be effective but not so strong enough to endanger accountability”?
  7. “The study of administration should start from the base of management rather than the foundation of law.” Explain.
  8. “Public and Private Administrations are two species of the same genus, but they also have special values and techniques of their own.” Comment.
  9. “If public administration is to play a major legitimising role in governing our complex society, it needs to be more fully conceptualised.” Discuss.
  10. “Though there ere certain points of similarity between public and private administration yet no private organisation can ever be exactly the same as a public one.” -Examine.
  11. “publicness” of public Administration in an ideal democratic government remains the ultimate value in theory and practice.’ Elucidate.
  12. “A science of administration would be a body of formal statements describing invariant relationships between measurable objects, units, or elements. Unquestionably, administrative research has produced definite precepts and hypotheses that are applicable to concrete situation.”- (Fritz Morstein Marx) Comment.
  13. “What do you understand by the term under administration? What are the issues involved in it?”
  14. “As long as the study of public administration is not comparative, claim for a ‘science of public administration ‘sounds rather hollow” Explain.
  15. “The scope of administration is determined by the scope of government functions which is decided politically”. Comment.
  16. “In the science of administration, whether public or private, the basic ‘good’ is efficiency.” Comment.
  17. How far is it true to state that the bureaucratic state began to displace the administrative state; when the predominant function of the government changed from regulation to operation of business?
  18. “The scope of public Administration is ever expanding.” Comment.
  19. A theory of public administration means in our time a theory of politics also. Comment.
  20. “The postwar formulations of White and Pfiffner reflect the new ‘public policy’ orientation-the conception of administration as a political process.” Comment.
  21. How dose public administration differ in the developed and developing societies? How far can it modernise the traditional political culture of developing countries?
  22. Waldo speaks of the fears of F.M. Mark that Public administration has grown so broad, and so much is involved at its periphery that it stands “In danger of disappearing completely as a recognizable focus of study.” Comment.
  23. ‘The identity and scope of public Administration both as an academic discipline and government in operation, have always been matters of continuing debate and controversy.’ Discuss.
  24. ‘Public Administration consists of all those operations having for their purpose the fulfilment or enforcement of Public Policy.’ Comment.
  25. ……the development, if not survival of civilisation depends on the science and practice of administration.’ Comment.
  26. “Popular belief is that ownership change from public to private brings about improved performance.” Comment.
  27. Management of the flow of work upward & downward within human hierarchies and between human hierarchies is the art of administration. (Appleby). Comment.
  28. Do you think that contemporary Administrative Theory supports the ‘art’ of public administration and generally tends to place less emphasis on the ‘science’ of public administration?

Wilson’s vision of Public Administration

  1. “Even after 130 years of its publication, Woodrow Wilson’s essay ‘The Study of Administration’ continues to have great relevance even today.” Comment.
  2. “The field of Public Administration is a field of business.” (Woodrow Wilson).
  3. “Calling Woodrow Wilson, the father of Public Administration is doing injustice to equally or even more eminent contributions made prior to him.” Comment.
  4. “Administrative questions are not political questions.” Discuss.

Evolution of the discipline and its present status

  1. “With every major transformation in the applied world of Public Administration, the study of Public Administration has grown in scope and intensity.” Discuss the relationship between the evolution of the discipline and profession if Public Administration.
  2. How would you trace the development of Public Administration in terms of different paradigms from the politics/ administration dichotomy of 1900-1926 to the rise of Public Administration as Public Administration after the formation of the National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration (NASPAA)in the USA in 1970?
  3. In the evolution of the discipline of Public Administration. Minnowbrook Conference I, II and III reflect the discipline’s reconceptualization and its changing values. Elucidate.
  4. From Woodrow to Herbert Simon most writers on administration have taken the achievement of efficiency as the central objective. Justify the statement with references to the work of major writers.
  5. Give an account of major landmarks in the growth of the discipline of Public Administration in the 20th century. What are the possible trends in its growth in first decade of 21st century?
  6. “The advent of the concept of “roll back of the state” since the nineteen eighties has been altering the role of Public Administration but certainly not diminishing its central place in human society.” Discuss.
  7. Describe the evolution of the discipline of public administration with special emphasis on post-1970 developments.
  8. “……The paradigms of public administration may be understood in terms of locus and focus.” – Golembiewski. In the light of the above statement describe the “five- paradigms” of Nicholas Henry about the evolution of the discipline of public administration.
  9. Examine the growth to the discipline of Public Administration as a response to the developing capitalistic system in the U.S.A.
  10. “Most of the propositions that make up the body of administrative theory today share, unfortunately, this defect of proverbs.” Comment.

New Public Administration

  1. The Phenomenological Approach advocated by the New Public Administration has obstructed the path of theory building in Public Administration.” Comment
  2. “The New Public Administration has seriously jolted the traditional concepts and outlook of the discipline and enriched the subject by imparting wider perspective by linking it closely to the society.” (Felix A. Nigro and Lloyd G. Nigro) Elucidate.
  3. “New Public Management is dead; long live digital era of governance.” Comment.
  4. “New Public Administration is … a revolution or radicalism in worlds, and (at best) status-quo in skills or technologies.”
  5. Minnowbrook Conference in USA identified four features crucial to ‘new public administration; Explain.
  6. “The themes developed at 1988 MINNOWBROOK conference (20 years after the first conference) largely focus on the current and future visions in the field of public administration.” Elucidate.
  7. New Public Administrationist are likely to be forthright advocates for social equity and world doubtless seek a supporting clientele. Comment.
  8. Explicate the theoretical premises of ‘New Public Administration’ and show how far their concerns were accommodated in Public Administration.
  9. The essence of New Public Administration is “some sort of movement in the direction of normative theory, philosophy, social concern & activism.” (Waldo). Comment.
  10. ‘Deductive – nomological and inductive- probabilistic approaches dominate new public administration.’ (Marini) Discuss.

Public Choice Approach

  1. Discuss how the Public Choice Theory promotes the concept of ‘Steering’ and undermines the concept of ‘Rowing’ in administration.
  2. What is administrative elitism? How does it evolve in public administration? Elaborate your response with reference to historical examples.
  3. ‘On a more sophisticated plane public choice is concerned with “Pareto optimality”, or at least with “Pareto improvements”; Comment.
  4. Whereas Downs’ model is largely dependent on a theory of psychological motivation, Niskanen’s model is framed by neo-classical thinking. In the light if the above, discuss the public choice approach to decision-making.
  5. “Public Administration today Stands at the crossroads of public choice theory, pluralism, corporatism & elitism.” Discuss.

Challenges of liberalization, Privatisation, Globalisation

  1. “Globalization has constructed the administrative state to save and serve corporate power structure.” Discuss how transnational corporations impact government and public administration in the contemporary era.
  2. “Globalisation has transformed the nature and character of State from traditional administrative Welfare State to a Corporate State.” Analyse the changes in the nature of public administration in this context.
  3. “In the globalized public administration, hierarchy creates more ethical problems than it solves ….” Comment.
  4. Public Undertakings have received a raw deal in the wake of liberalism and privatization. Comment.

Good Governance: concept and application

  1. “Governance is neither a paradigm nor a panacea for all the ills of government. It may be a more useful approach when other methods fail in providing public service.” Critically evaluate.
  2. With the entry of the concept of ‘good governance’ the discipline of Public Administration has shed its statist character. Explain.
  3. “Good governance is ensuring respect for human rights and the rule of law, strengthening democracy, promoting transparency and capacity in Public Administration.” (Kofi Annan) In the light of the statement, critically examine the criteria of good governance as provided by United Nations and Nayef Al-Rodhan.
  4. “Governance theory and the notion of governmentality have many points of convergence, but they run on parallel lines.” Comment.
  5. Civil Servants must be social moralists in action, living up to Paul Appleby’s dictum that ‘responsible government is ethical government.’ Examine this statement in the light of good governance.
  6. “Not merely governance but good governance is the key factor in achieving the United Nations Millennium Goals (2000).” Explain.
  7. Democracy and good governance are contradictions in terms. Discuss with examples.
  8. “Elaborate the World Bank’s concept of ‘Good Governance.”

New Public Management

  1. Has New Public Management failed in promoting a democratic polity? Analyse in the contexts of individual as a citizen and individual as a customer.
  2. “New Public Service approach is an improvement over its predecessor, New Public Management,” Discuss.
  3. New Public Management has been branded by certain scholars as ‘Neo-Taylorism’. Is it a justified comparison? What factors have led to the decline of NPM so soon after its birth?
  4. “New public management and post new public management reforms initiatives ever affected the balance between managerial, political, administrative, legal, professional and social accountability.” Analyse.
  5. “New Public Management may have neither been the saviour its enthusiasts promised nor the devil its critics worried it world be.” Discuss.
  6. It is said that “the perspective of public administration, developed over a century, with a tradition of management of public institutions and services has received a jolt from the novelty of New Public Management.” Bring out the core values, approaches and assumptions of traditional public administration and show how the New Public Management has attempted to change or retain them, and to what extent.
  7. “In the last two decades, almost all countries of the world have experienced transformations in their administrative systems.” Explain this phenomenon with examples from the developed and the developing nations in the context of New Public Management Movement.
  8. “The ‘New Public Management’ (NPM)is an incarnation of a new model of public sector management in response of the challenges of liberalization, international competitiveness and technological changes.” Explain.

Entrepreneurial Government

  1. ‘A crisis of credibility’ in the administrative system can be overcome only by ‘reinventing government’. Comment.

Administrative Thought

Scientific Management and Scientific Management movement

  1. “Taylorism is considered very controversial despite its popularity.” (Stephen P. Waring) Comment.
  2. “Taylor’s ideas need modification in the context of post-industrial economies in
  3. In what respects is Taylor’s ‘Scientific Management’ or classical motivational theory different from the classical organizational theory expounded by Gulick, Urwick etc?
  4. What light does Antonio Gramsci’s critique of Taylorism throw on its socio-psychological underpinnings?
  5. “Taylor’s contribution was not a set of general principles for organising work efficiency, but a set of operating procedures that could be employed in each concrete situation to secure their application.”
  6. “Taylor’s scientific management ignored social and psychological factors.” Comment.
  7. “Taylor’s Scientific Management already offered a ‘humanistic’ theory of motivation, with its democratic and participatory emphases, that was hardly improved on by Elton Mayo and others.” Comment.
  8. ‘Taylor’s Scientific Management had a major influence on the growing reform and economy movements in Public Administration.’ Comment.
  9. ‘Scientific Management is a primitive tool for industrial polyarchies.’ (Dahl). Explain.

Classical Theory

  1. “The design of the physical structure, the anatomy of the organization came first, and was indeed the principal consideration.”
  2. “An organization is a system of inter-related social behaviours of participants,” Analyse these statements and evaluate the contributions of the respective approaches to administration theory.
  3. Structural theory is, by and large, grounded in classical principles of efficiency, effectiveness and productivity. Explain.
  4. Explain the ‘Peter Principle’ in respect of promotion policy in a hierarchical organisation.
  5. Discuss the main approaches to increase the efficiency of government and public administration.
  6. Critically examine the Classical Science of Administration with special reference to its criticism by Dwight Waldo and Robert Dahl.
  7.    “The failure of classical science of administration lies in its capacity to confront theory with evidence.” Discuss.
  8. In a hierarchy every employee tends to rise to his level of incompetence. Comment.
  9. Although the theory of V.A. Graicunas is admittedly crude, it is useful as reference against which variations between organisations as well as within organisation can be examined. Comment.
  10. Compare the relative merits of the classical theory of organisation and the systems approach.
  11. Elucidate whether increasing organizational size gives rise to dialectical forces having opposite organization effects.
  12. “Managing means looking ahead, which makes the process of prevoyance a central business activity.” (Henry Fayol). Comment.
  13. Describe the institutional and organisational consequences of delegation of authority.
  14. ‘The law of Graicunas about the span of relationships in an organisation states a partial truth; Comment.

Weber’s bureaucratic model-its critique and post- Weberian Developments

  1. “Bureau pathology denigrates competence in organizations.” Explain.
  2. “The concepts of rationality and efficiency are intertwined in the bureaucratic analysis of Max Weber.” Comment.
  3. “Weberian model of bureaucracy lacks emotional validity when applied to modern democratic administration.” Comment.
  4. ‘In the canonization of this abstract idea of ‘staatsraison’ are inseparably woven the sure instincts of the bureaucracy for the conditions which preserve its own power in the State’ (Weber). Explain.
  5. Consider the statements below:
    • “Technically, the bureaucracy represents the purest type of legal-rational authority.”;
    • “Bureaucracy does not represent the only type of legal authority.” Identify the theoretical context and analyse the above statements.
  6. Weber’s ideas of impersonal detachment and esprit de corps are incompatible. Explain.
  7. “Bureaucracy can exist only where the whole service of the state is removed from the common political of the people, its chiefs as well as rank and file. Its motives, its objectives, its policy, its standards must be bureaucratic.” – Discuss.
  8. “Weberian model of bureaucracy lacks empirical validity when applied to modern democratic administration.” Examine.
  9. Critically examine the models of Max Weber and Chester I Barnard with reference to ‘bureaucratic authority’.
  10. “It is not weak but strong bureaucracy that creates concern in democracy.” Comment.
  11. “Once fully established, bureaucracy is among those social structures which are the hardest to destroy.” Comment.
  12. Bureaucracy is “a system of government the control of which is so completely in the hands of officials that their power jeopardizes the liberties of ordinary citizens.” Comment.
  13. “The transition to a study of the negatives aspects of bureaucracy is afforded by the application of Veblen’s concept of trained incapacity.” Examine.
  14. ‘Bureaucracy thrives under the cloak of ministerial responsibility in a parliamentary democracy; Comment.
  15. For charisma to be transformed into a permanent routine structure, it is necessary that its anti-economic character should be altered. (Weber). Comment.
  16. “Hierarchy of authority and the system of rules ensure depersonalization and efficiency.” (Max Weber). Comment.

Dynamic Administration (Mary Parker Follett)

  1. Mary Parker Follett traced the foundational value of business and enterprise on her way to understand the organism of governmental machinery. Comment.
  2. “Conflict is the appearance of differences – differences of opinions and of interests” – (Mary Parker Follett). Comment.
  3. “Follett’s work was not directed towards the resolution of the conflict of ideas, but towards the resolution of structural conflicts between workers and capitalists.” In the light of the statement critically evaluate Follett’s idea of dynamic administration.
  4. Critically examine conflict resolution according to M.P. Follett. Explain how McGregor took forward her ideas to the context of complex organizations.
  5. “Mary Parker Follett was for ahead of her times.” Discuss.
  6. “The main problem with Mary Parker Follett’s work is that her idealism is showing.” Explain.
  7. In Follett’s view, “authority belongs to the job and stays with the job.” Explain.

Human Relations School (Elton Mayo and others)

  1. “What is distinctive about the Classical and Human Relations schools of administration is their complementarity to each other.” Analyse.
  2. To what extent has the human relations movement contributed to the knowledge and practice within the field of personnel administration?
  3. Explain the contribution of George Elton Mayo to the development of the Human Relations School. How did behavioural scientists modify his basic findings?
  4. Examine the basic postulates of the Human Relations Theory and show how far it differs from the classical theory of organizations.
  5. “The Hawthorne researches demonstrate the need to analyse organisations as living social structures.” Comment.
  6. Evaluate the contributions of George Elton Mayo to Administrative organization. Do you consider his contributions as great innovations of modem times?
  7. ‘Mayo was a behavioural scientist long before the term became popular.’ Comment.
  8. “From Taylorism to Mayoism the organisation theory has travelled a long road in quest of Organisational Effectiveness.” Comment.
  9. “Many problems of Worker-Management co-operation were the results of the emotionally based attitudes of the workers rather than objective difficulties in the situation.” (Elton Mayo). Comment.

Functions of the Executive (C.I. Barnard)

  1. “Chester Barnard in ‘The Functions of the Executive’ injected ‘the social’ in the study of organization. Explain in this context how the executive is expected to play a much greater role than a manager.”
  2. “Executive positions imply a complex morality and require a high capacity of responsibility” – (Chester Barnard). Comment.
  3. “Contemporary Organisational theory seems further afield of Chester Barnard’s Functions of the Executive than of organisational ecology.” Examine the statement in the light of ecological elements in Barnard’s thought.
  4. “The Barnard – Simon Theory of Organisation is essentially a theory of motivation. “Comment.
  5. “Organisation is a system of consciously coordinated activities or forces of two or more persons. “Comment.
  6. ‘The inculcation of belief in the real existence of a common purpose is an essential executive function; Comment.
  7. ….. “a more thorough consideration leads to the understanding that communication, authority, specialisation and purpose are all aspects compre-hended in coordination.”- (Chester I. Barnard) Comment.
  8. Why is it that the behavioural approach to the study of organisations is a continuous phenomenon? Discuss Chester Barnard’s contributions to this approach.
  9. Show how Barnard while analysing the multiplicity of satisfactions, clearly identifies four specific inducements.

Simon’s decision-making theory

  1. “Herbert Simon’s book Administrative Behavior presents a synthesis of the classical and behavioural approaches to the study of Public Administration.” Explain.
  2. “Decisions are not made by ‘organizations’, but by ‘human beings’ behaving as members of organizations.” How do Bernard and Simon conceptualize the relation between the decisions of the individual employee and the organizational authority?
  3. ‘Three features characterize Simon’s original view of bounded rationality: search for alternatives, satisficing, and aspiration adaptation.’ Elucidate.
  4. “Simon’s identifying decision-making as the core field of public administration appears logically acceptable but his positivist underpinning is problematic.” Critically examine the statement.
  5. “Simon’s work has had major implications for the study of public administration and the practice of public administration professionalism.” Comment.
  6. The ‘decision-making scheme’ and ‘satisfying model’ of Herbert A Simon is the major component of administrative theory. Comment.
  7. “Administrative efficiency is enhanced by keeping at a minimum the number of organizational levels through which a matter must pass before it is acted upon.” –(Herbert A. Simon) Comment.
  8. “The basic question in the relationship between political and permanent executives is the separation of facts and values at the operational level.” Comment.
  9. “The study of decision-making is proceeding in so many directions that we can lose sight of the basic administrative processes that Barnard and Simon were trying to describe and that so many men have been trying to improve.” Elucidate.
  10. “As March and Simon point out, there seems to exist a ‘Gresham’s Law’ of decision-making.” Explain.
  11. “Though somewhat unwittingly, Herbert Simon and James March have provided, the muscle and the flesh to the Weberian (bureaucratic) skeleton. “Comment.
  12. ‘Simon explains that decision-making basically involves choice between alternative plans of action and choice in turn, involves facts and values.’ Comment.
  13. Argue for and against the Simonian perspective that the “decisional science envelopes decisional structure, decisions and their feedback not in an integrated manner but anything other than that.”
  14. Discuss the Simonian concept of ‘satisfying’ as a bridge between rational and non-rational perspectives on organizations.
  15. ‘The first stage (in administrative decision-making) is what I call “Intelligence”, the second represents “Designin” and the last stage is “Choice”. Critically examine the Simonian Model of Rational Decision-Making in administration.

Participative Management (R. Likert, C. Argyris, D. McGregor)

  1. The Participative Management School of Argyris and Likert advocates democracy within the administrative system. Will this approach be equally useful to developing countries with evolving democracies?
  2. “Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y describe two contrasting models of workforce motivation applied by managers in an organization.” Examine.
  3. According to McGregor, “true professional help is not in playing God with the client, but in placing professional knowledge and skills at the client’s disposal.” In the light of above, justify how theory-y is indicative and not prescriptive.
  4. The theory of ‘organizational incompetence has two separate and distinct faces. Examine Chris Argyris’ views on this.
  5. “In McGregor’s view, the managerial cosmology meaningfully addresses the understanding of manager and his role perceptions.” Explain.
  6. “The successful management leaders are found in Likert’s ‘System-4’ approach to organisational leadership.” Examine.
  7. Analyse McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y. Do you agree with the view that with every passing year, McGregor’s message has become more relevant and more important? Substantiate your answer.

Systems Approach

  1. The Systems Approach is relevant even today for organisational analysis. Discuss how Chester Barnard and David Easton adopted this approach in their respective areas of study.

Karl Marx

  1. “Karl Marx’s interpretation of bureaucracy was rooted in the history of the nature of the State”. Evaluate.

Dwight Waldo

  1. Dwight Waldo in his book, The Administrative State emphatically mentions that the roots of administrative theory lie in political theory. Critically examine Waldo’s contention.
  2. Waldo’s ‘The Administrative State’ provides a fundamental challenge to some of the orthodox premises. Explain


  1. “That is, to be successful administrator one must have a catholic curiosity.” Comment.
  2. ‘The Chief Executive is a trouble shooter, a supervisor, and a promoter of the future programme; Comment.

Sharing is caring!

0 0 vote
Article Rating
Notify of
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments
Would love your thoughts, please comment.x

Get exclusive UPSC Resources that I only share with Telegram subscribers.

Scroll to Top