• The Samudrayaan mission is India’s first manned ocean mission, with the goal of sending men deep into the ocean in a submersible vehicle for deep-ocean exploration and rare mineral mining.
  • It is a part of the Rs 6000-crores Deep Ocean Mission.
  • It will send them in a manned submersible vehicle called MATSYA 6000 for deep underwater studies.
  • Constructed by: the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) and the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES).
  • Timeline: 5 years for the period 2020-2021 to 2025-2026.
  • India joined the elite group of countries that have specialist technology and vehicles to conduct subsea missions, including the United States, Russia, France, Japan, and China.


  • Deep-ocean exploration for resources: MATSYA 6000 will help the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) conduct deep-ocean exploration for resources such as gas hydrates, and polymetallic manganese nodules, hydro-thermal sulphides, and cobalt crusts, which are found at depths of 1000 to 5500 metres. 
  • High Endurance: The submersible was designed with 12-hour operational endurance and emergency endurance systems that can last up to 96 hours. It can crawl for 72 hours on the seabed at a depth of 6 km. 
  • Growth Opportunities: The Mission will open up greater opportunities for growth in the areas of clean energy, drinking water, and the blue economy.

Deep Ocean Mission

  • It was approved in June 2021 by the (MoES). It aims to explore the deep ocean for resources, develop deep-sea technologies for sustainable use of ocean resources, and support the Blue Economy Initiatives of the Indian Government.
  • The cost of the Mission has been estimated at Rs. 4,077 crore over a five-year period and will be implemented in phases.
  • It is an indigenously developed manned submersible vehicle.
  • It will facilitate the MoES in conducting deep ocean exploration of resources such as gas hydrates, polymetallic manganese nodules, hydro-thermal sulfides, and cobalt crusts which are located at an approximate depth between 1000 and 5500 metres.
  • Polymetallic nodules, also called manganese nodules, are mineral concretions on the sea bottom formed of concentric layers of iron and manganese hydroxides around a core.